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LIQUIDAIRTECHNOLOGIESAGUIDETOTHEPOTENTIAL19Liquidaircouldintegratewithawiderangeofgeneratingplanttohelpbalancethegridwhichwillbecomeincreasinglychallengingastheproportionofintermittentrenewablecapacitycontinuestorise.ThesamecouldbealsosaidforotherformsofbulkelectricitystoragesuchaspumpedhydroorcompressedairCAESbutliquidairhasseveraldistinctadvantages.Forexamplewindfarmscouldintegrateenergystoragetoabsorbexcesspowerwhendemandislowandexportitatpeaktimes.Thiswouldrmthewindoutputmakingitmorevaluabletoboththewindfarmoperatorandthegridreducethelikelihoodofwastefulconstraintpaymentsandcutcarbonemissions.InprinciplethesebenetscouldbeprovidedbyanyformofbulkstoragebutpumpedhydroandCAESaregeographicallyandgeologicallyconstrainedwhereasliquidairplantsarenot.Forexamplethepowerfromthe300MWThanetWindFarmofftheKentcoastjoinsthegridattheRichboroughelectricitysubstationwherethereareplanstobuilda40MWdieselpeakingplantforwhenthewinddrops.ThisrolecouldbeservedbyaLAESplantorCryogensetwithoutresortingtofossilfuelsbutintheatKentcountrysidepumpedstoragewouldbeimpossible.Nuclearandotherthermalpowerstationscouldalsobenetbyintegratingstoragetoshapetheiroutputinresponsetouctuatingdemandallowingthemtorunmoreefciently.Energystoragecouldbechargedduringoff-peakhoursandusedtogenerateadditionalpoweratpeaktimes.Theadvantageofliquidairisthatunlikeotherstoragetechnologiesitcanmakeuseofthepowerstationswasteheattoproduceadditionalpowerathighlevelsofefciency.AfullyintegrateddesignproposedbyProfessorYulongDingoftheUniversityofBirminghamwouldraisethepeakoutputofthenuclearplanttothreetimesitsratedcapacity.OneconventionalwayofsatisfyingpeakelectricitydemandisthroughOpenCycleGasTurbineOCGTplantsordieselgeneratorswhichareinefcientandalmostascarbonintensiveascoal.HoweveranothernovelliquidairdesignfromProfessorDingwouldeliminatetheemissionsofsuchplantsthroughcarboncapturewhilegeneratingpeakpoweralmostascheaplyasbaseloadformoredetailseetheCLCFreportcitedonpage25.Thismightgosomewaytowardsreconcilingthegovernmentsrenewedinterestingaswithitslegallybindingemissionsreductiontargets.Nootherstoragetechnologyiscapableofthis.BOX3IntegratingliquidairintopowergenerationScotlandcouldbeanearlyadopterofliquidairtechnologies.TheScottishgovernmenthassetatargetofgeneratingtheequivalentofitstotalelectricityconsumptionfromrenewablesandexportingasmuchelectricityagainby2020andhasrecognisedtheimportanceofgridstorage.ItintendstopublishacomprehensiveenergystrategywithinthenexttwoyearsbasednotonlyontheprinciplesofdecarbonisationsecurityofsupplyandlowestpossiblecostbutalsoofeconomicopportunitytoScottishindustry.ScotlandsambitiousrenewablegenerationtargetsuggestsapotentiallylargeroleforLiquidAirEnergyStorage.AstudybyWilliamHoltofStrathclydeUniversityfoundthetargetimpliedaneedformorethan3GWofstorageby2020equivalentto32x100MWLAESplants.AroundtableheldbyLAENinGlasgowinJune2013foundthatif60ofthevalueofthatplantweresourcedintheUKthevaluetothedomesticeconomycouldbesome2billion.MuchofthatvaluecouldaccruetoScotlandsincebuildingLAESplantswouldplaytoitsstrengthintheoilandgassectorandmechanicalengineeringmoregenerally.Formoreinformationpleaseseewww.liquidair.org.uk.BOX4ScotlandLiquidaircouldbeintegratedwithallsortsofgeneratingcapacitywindgasnucleartoincreaseefciencyandcutcarbon.4.THELIQUIDAIRECONOMY