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14LIQUIDAIRTECHNOLOGIESAGUIDETOTHEPOTENTIALNationalGridexpectsUKLNGimportstoriseto30billioncubicmetersin2030GoneGreenscenario.IfallthecoldfromthisLNGwereusedinairliquefactionitcouldhelpproduce8.1milliontonnesofliquidairperyear.Thiswouldconsumejust0.97TWhofelectricityratherthan3.23TWhthatwouldhavebeenrequiredwithouttheLNGcold.The8.1milliontonnesofliquidairproducedwouldthendeliver0.81TWhbacktothegridoverthecourseofayearor0.2oftotalUKelectricitydemandin2012.AlternativelythatmuchLNG-assistedliquidaircouldinprinciplefuel9.3billioncarkilometresequivalenttoalmost2ofthedistancedrivenbycarsinGreatBritainin2011or111000heathybridbusesmorethan2.5timestheexistingUKbuseet.5IntermsofenergysecurityanLNG-sizestoragetanklledwithliquidairwouldrepresentabout16.6GWhwhichcouldmakegoodthelossof5GWofgeneratingcapacityfor3hours.IsleofGrainLNGterminal.SourceNationalGrid.CryogensetTheCryogensetissimplyaLAESsystemwithouttheliqueer.Itconsistsofastoragetankheatexchangerturbineandgeneratorandwouldbesuppliedwithliquidairornitrogenbyroadtankerfromanindustrialgasproductionsite.Thisarrangementisdesignedforcircumstanceswherethegeneratorwouldbeusedtooinfrequentlytojustifythecostofaliqueersuchasprovidingemergencyback-uppowerforbusinessesanddistributedreservecapacityforthegrid.Itiszero-emissionsatthepointofuseandpotentiallylowcarbonandapotentialreplacementforadieselgenset.WhereastheLAESsystemisviableatscalesof10MW-250MWtheoptimumsizeforaCryogensetis5MW-10MW.Itcanalsobeintegratedwithsourcesofwasteheat.Manycompaniesmaintaindieselorgasredgeneratorstoprovideback-upforessentialservicesincaseofpowercutsincludingwatercompaniesfactorieshospitalstelecomsoperatorsanddatacentres.SomecompanieswithlargergeneratorsalsohelptobalancetheelectricitygridbytakingpartinSTORtheShortTermOperatingReservemarketasgeneratorsheldinreserveagainstasuddenlossofgeneratingcapacityorspikeindemand.ThispoweriscarbonintensivebecauseitisgeneratedfromfossilfuelsusingsmallinefcientgeneratorsandmodellingsuggestsCO2emissionsfromCryogensetswouldbealmost60loweronthebasisofprojectedovernightelectricityin2030.DieselgeneratorsalsoemithighlevelsofNOXandPMpollutionsomelocalauthoritiessuchastheCityofLondonhavebannedtheiruseforgridbalancingwhereasCryogensetsexhaustonlycleancoldairornitrogen.AnycompanyinstallingaCryogensetcouldincreasethesecurityofitselectricitysupplyreduceitsexposuretopeakpowerpricesthroughtheTriadsystemgeneraterevenueintheSTORmarketandreduceitsemissions.TheprospectsfordeploymentoftheCryogensetarelikelytodependonafuturelegislativeframeworkbutthemarketpotentialissettogrowrapidly.NationalGridexpectsitsreserverequirementtorisefrom3.5GWtodaytosome8-13GWby2020.IntheGoneGreenscenarioby2025morethanhalfoftheprojected8GWSTORcapacitywouldbeprovidedbynewprovidersratherthantheincumbentenergycompanies.LongertermtheCLCFreportfoundthemarketopportunityfortheCryogensetcouldbe30GWby2050.CryogensetandwasteheatLikeLAEStheCryogensetcanbeintegratedintoprocessesthatgeneratewasteheatsuchasbiomasspowerstationsorlandllgasgenerators.WasteheatfromthegeneratorwouldbeusedtoraisespecicoutputoftheCryogensetwhilealsoincreasingtheeffectiveefciencyofthegeneratorcyclebyconvertingthewasteheattoelectricalenergy.Itwouldalsoallowtheownertoearnadditionalrevenuebyprovidingarangeofstorageservicestothegrid.Highviewplanstohavea5MW15MWhCryogensetintegratingwasteheatoperationalin2015.LiquidAirEnergyStorageplantscanconvertwasteheatandwastecoldintoadditionalpowerathighlevelsofefciency.3.LIQUIDAIRTECHNOLOGIES58.1milliontonnesofliquidair365200kgperbusperday110958buses