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10LIQUIDAIRTECHNOLOGIESAGUIDETOTHEPOTENTIALBalancingtheelectricitygridwillbecomeincreasinglychallengingastheproportionofintermittentrenewablegenerationcontinuestorise.Thisisnotsimplyaquestionofholdingpowerstationsinreserveforwhenthewinddropsbutalsobeingabletoabsorbexcesswindpowerwhenthereistoolittledemandoftenatnightaroleforwhichstorageisideallysuited.IfsuchwrongtimeenergyisstoredandusedtodisplacefossilgeneratorsatpeaktimesCO2emissionsarereducedandconstraintcompensationpaymentstowindfarmoperatorsavoided.HowevercurrentstoragetechnologiesincludingpumpedstorageCompressedAirEnergyStorageCAESandgridbatteriesallsuffersignicantdrawbacks.BycontrastLAEShasnogeographicalconstraintscontainsnotoxicorexoticmaterialsandisexpectedtobelonglasting30yearsandlowmaintenance.Sinceitisbuiltfromprovenlarge-scalecomponentsthatarealreadywidelyusedintheindustrialgasandpowergenerationindustriesLAESisoneofthefewtechnologiescapableofprovidingplantsof50-100MWand100sMWhinthenearterm.ItisalsomoreexiblethansomeotherformsofstoragesincepowerMWandenergyMWhcanbeconguredindependentlyaccordingtoneed.AtcommercialscaleLAESislikelytobehighlycompetitiveHighviewPowerStorageprojectscapitalcostsfordaily-cyclingplantswillrangefrom120kWhfora200MWplantto320kWhfora10MWplant.LAEScouldperformawiderangeofrolesintheenergysystemincludingnstorewrongtimeenergyfromintermittentrenewablegeneratorstodisplacefossilgenerationatpeaktimesandreduceCO2emissionsnhelprmtheoutputofwindfarmssoincreasingitsvaluetobothwindfarmoperatorsandthegridnprovideresponsereserveblackstartandancillaryservicestonetworkoperatorsnimprovenetworkassetmanagementbyallowingoperatorstodeferorreducethecostofupgradingtransmissionanddistributionlinesBalancingthegridwillrequireincreasingamountsofstoragetoabsorbwrongtimeenergy.Liquidairisoneofthefewtechnologiesabletoprovidelarge-scaleplantsintheshortterm.3.LIQUIDAIRTECHNOLOGIESLiquidAirEnergyStoragecycle.SourceHighviewPowerStorage.Stage1ChargeStage2StorageStage3PowerRecoveryStage4ColdRecyclingStage5Harnessingwasteheatoptional