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8LIQUIDAIRTECHNOLOGIESAGUIDETOTHEPOTENTIALpower.Thiswouldproduceevengreaterwell-to-wheelsemissionssavingscomparedtodiesel.IfadieselTRUemits48tonnesofCO2peryeartheDEsystemwouldemitamaximumof37tonnesbasedonthecarbonintensityoftodaysUKgridelectricityandlessthan4tonnesin2030asavingofmorethan90.4Dearmanpowerandrefrigerationengine.SourceTheDearmanEngineCompany.ADearmanpowerandrefrigerationenginewoulddelivernancialaswellascarbonsavings.ModellingbyE4techshowsthataliquidaircombinedcoldandpowerunitdesignedtocoola40reeferto-20Cwouldpayforitselfinunderthreemonths.Dearmanexpectstherefrigerationunitwillbeineettrialsbytheendof2015.AuxiliaryPowerUnitAPUApowerandcoolingenginecouldalsobeputtogooduseinamobileAuxiliaryPowerUnit.APUsaretypicallyusedonlongdistancelorrieswherethedriversleepsinabunkinthecabrunningasmallauxiliarydieselunittosupplythehotelloadoflightingelectricalappliancesandairconditioningsavesagreatdealoffuelandcostcomparedtoidlingthevehiclesmainengineallnight.Howeverincreasinglystringentandwidespreadanti-idlingregulationiscreatingpressuretodevelopazero-emissionsalternativetothedieselAPU.WhereonlyelectricityisneededabatterypoweredAPUisthemostcompetitiveoptionbutwhereair-conditioningisalsorequiredtheliquidairpowerandcoolingAPUwouldbesignicantlycheapertobuyandrun.AtpresenttransportrefrigerationisoverwhelminglypoweredbydieseleitherthroughacompressordrivenbythevehiclesmainengineoraseparateTRU.Refrigerationalonecanconsumeasmuchas20ofalorrysfuelandcauseCO2emissionsofupto48tonnespervehicleperyear.DieselTRUsalsoemithighlevelsofnitrogenoxidesNOXandparticulatematterPMandarenoisywhichcanrestricttheirabilitytomakeurbanornight-timedeliveries.Anytechnologythatcanreducefuelcostsemissionsandnoisewillclearlypresentastrongbusinessenvironmentalandsocialcase.VehiclemanufacturersandindustrialgasproducershavebeguntooffervehiclerefrigerationbasedonliquidnitrogenevaporationsuchasnatureFridgesecoFridgesystemandaround1000unitsarenowinuse.Suchsystemsarezeroemissionatthepointofuseandquietersocapableofmakingnight-timedeliveries.Liquidnitrogeniseithersprayeddirectlyintothetrailerwhereitevaporatesanddisplaceswarmerairwithinertcryogenicgasoritispassedthroughaheatexchangerthatcoolstheairinthecompartmentindirectly.Thedirectapproachisabout30moreefcientthantheindirectbutrequiresadditionalsafetymeasurestopreventthedriverenteringthecompartmentuntilexcessnitrogenisvented.Neitherapproachhoweverextractsanypowerfromtheevaporationprocess.Directrefrigerationbyliquidnitrogen.SourcenatureFridge.TherefrigerationunitcurrentlybeingdevelopedbytheDearmanEngineCompanyisasignicantadvanceonexistingtechnologiessinceitusesliquidairornitrogentoproducebothcoolingandshaftpower.FirstthecryogenisvaporisedinaheatexchangerintherefrigerationcompartmentsocoolingitdownthenthehighpressuregasisusedtodrivetheDearmanenginewhoseshaftpowercanbeusedtodriveaconventionalrefrigerationcompressororforauxiliaryADearmanenginerefrigerationunitcouldproduceCO2savingsofmorethan90.3.LIQUIDAIRTECHNOLOGIES4EstimatesDearmanEngineCompanyandE4tech.UKgridcarbonintensity547gCO2kWhtoday50gCO2kWhprojectedin2030DearmanEngineHEFReclaimReheatGeneratorandHEFPumpThermalIntegrationthroughHEFCircuitLN2TankFridgeUnitLN2PumpHEFTank