Page 1
Page 2
Page 3
Page 4
Page 5
Page 6
Page 7
Page 8
Page 9
Page 10
Page 11
Page 12
Page 13
Page 14
Page 15
Page 16
Page 17
Page 18
Page 19
Page 20
Page 21
Page 22
Page 23
Page 24
Page 25
Page 26
Page 27
Page 28
Page 29
Page 30
Page 31
Page 32
Page 33
Page 34
Page 35
Page 36
Page 37
Page 38
LiquidAirMediaCoverage201213AprilEdition2013ATSEFocusIsliquidairthemissinglinkinenergystoragePage137focusApril13www.at..aenergyIhaveneverquitegottothebottomowhygreatervalueisnotplacedonthelatentenergyassetsthatAustraliahasinitssolarandnuclearresources.Australiaisnotaloneincomingtoexperiencethatthereisavitalmissinglinktheinabilitytostoreenergythatkeepsadividebetweentheaspirationsobeingabletouserenewableresourcesandthepracticalitiesorenewablesuseinutureenergygenerationandsupplysystems.Teconceptoelectricalandthermalstorageismentionedinthe2012EnergyWhitePaper2012howeveritissomewhatsurprisingthattheissueisnothighlightedasanareaneedingstrategicinterventionalongsidethedemandandsupplymanagementmeasures.Withrenewablesourcesenergyisoencreatedinthewrongplaceatthewrongtimeanditbecomesdiculttoutiliseit.Exampleswouldbewindwaveandsolarenergy.AkeyquestioniswhatByRichardWilliamsr.a.williamsbham.ac.ukIsliquidairthemissinglinkinenergystoragetheroleoheelecriciydisribuionneworkandisfexibiliyisanessenialcomponeninhedeliveryandoverallcosandviabiliyoanysoragescheme.technologiesareavailabletocapturetheenergyinaormthatcanbeusedandtodothisinahighlycost-ecientmannerIntheUKeortshavebeenmadetoraisegovernmentsunderstandingowherethevalueoelectricalandthermalenergystoragemaylieinamarketplacethatisderegulatedwithseparatebodiesorgenerationtransmissionanddistribution.TesituationinAustraliahassomeresemblancetotheextentthatAustralianClimateChangelegislationisdrivingde-carbonisationandthiswillshitheenergyprovisionandcreatenewmarkets.Tepublicmindhoweverisoncostenergypovertyaccessibilityandsecurityosupply.HowevertheopportunitiesintheUKandAustraliaareverydierentjustastheenergygenerationmixisverydierent.InNovembertheUKChancellorannouncedthatenergystoragetechnologywasindeedcriticaltotheutureUKeconomyandvaluedat10billionayearby2050.Tisvaluecomesromunderstandingwherethedierentenergystoragetechnologiestintothegridatgenerationtransmissionanddistributionsegments.Itsnotsimplyamatteroprovidingstoragecapacitybutseeinghowarobustsystemcanbeconguredtosuitthechangingenergymixandsominimisethecostotransmissioninvestmentasthedemandorelectricalpowergrowsduetoelectrication.UKMinistershavesubsequentlyemphasisedtheneedorenergystorageresearch.SowhatmightenergystoragemeanorAustraliaorperhapsrstwhatitdoesntmean.Inmyviewitcertainlyshouldnotmeanllingthecountrywithbatteriesorstoringrenewableenergy.Batteriesarevastlyresource-intensiveanddemandre-useinwaysthatbusinessmodelshavenotbeenableyettoaccommodate.WhiletherehavebeensomeextensivebatteryparktrialsorregionalstorageinChinatheUSandotherenergyconstrainedcountriesorexampleChilethisdoesnotappeartobeawidespreadoptionsuitedorAustralia.Arangeoenergystoragemethodsiscurrentlyavailableandmostothesehavebeenreviewedrecently.Figure1showsasummarybaseduponthescaleopowerratingandthecall-downtimeexpressedhereasadischargetimeatratedpower.Clearlydierentapplicationsdemandappropriatestoragecharacteristicsandarangeotechnologiesareneededtosuitthespecicneeds.echnologicallyspeakingenergycanbestoredinmechanicalelectricalorchemicaldevicesandintheormoheat.Allareprobablyneededbutotherthanhydro-storagedamstherehavebeenewexamplesatasignicantscale.TeneedorfexibilityinsupplymeansthatitislikelythatseveraldierenttypesostoragemaybeneededsincesomecanbeswitchedFigure1EnergystoragemethodsKeyTypesofstorageBulkpowermanagementReserveresponseservicesDischargetimeatratedpowerSystempowerratingsmodulesizeSeconds1kW10kW100kW1MW10MW100MW1GWMinutesHoursTransmissionanddistributiongridsupportHydrogen-relatedMechanicalElectrochemicalElectricalThermalPumpedhydropowerstorageCompressedairenergystorageFlowbatteriesSodium-sulphurbatteryHydrogenfuelcellsHigh-energysupercapcitorsHigh-powersupercapacitorsSuperconductingmagneticenrgystorageCryogenicenergystorageAdvancedlead-acidbatteryLi-ionbatteryFlywheelsLead-acidbatteryNickelcadmiumbatteryNickelmetalhydridebattery