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LIQUIDAIRTECHNOLOGIESAGUIDETOTHEPOTENTIAL7DearmanEngineheathybridwasteheatrecoveryandcoolingBecausetheDearmanengineispoweredbythevaporisationofacryogenicliquiditsworkoutputcanberaisedbytheadditionoflowgradewasteheatfromanothersource-suchasaninternalcombustionengineICE.AnICElosesroughlytwothirdsoftheenergycontainedinitsfuelaswasteheataboutonethirdeachthroughtheradiatorandexhaust.Theheatlostthroughtheradiatorislowgrade100Cwhichconventionaltechnologiesnddifculttoharvest.HoweversincetheDEbottomtemperatureis-196Cevenlowgradewasteheatcanbeconvertedintoshaftpoweratpracticalconversionefcienciesofupto50.ThecoolingloopofadieselenginecontainsamixtureofwaterandglycoljustliketheheatexchangeuidinaDearmanengine.ThismeanstheICEwasteheatcouldbetransferredeitherdirectlycombiningradiatoruidandHEFinasinglecircuitorindirectlyviatwoseparatecircuitsconnectedbyaheatexchanger.ThereisnothingtostopanICE-DEheathybridincorporatingothertechnologiestoharvesthighergradewasteheatfromtheICEexhaust.AheathybridwouldconvertwasteheatfromtheICEintoextrashaftpowerthroughtheDearmanengine.ThiscouldbeusedtosupplytemporarypeaksinpowerloadsuchaspullingawayaccelerationorgoinguphillandwouldallowtheICEtobedownsizedandrunmoreefciently.TheDEalsohastheadvantageofdisplacingamaterialportionoftransportrelatedemissionsintoanenergyvectorliquidairornitrogenthatcanbeproducedfromlow-orzero-carbonsources.ThesecharacteristicsmeantheICE-DEheathybridlendsitselftouseinbusescoachesrubbishTheDearmanenginecanbecombinedwithaconventionalenginetomakeahighlyefcientheathybrid.3.LIQUIDAIRTECHNOLOGIEStruckslorriesurbandeliveryvehiclesandarangeofmorespecialistheavydutyandoff-roadequipment.AnICE-DEheathybridcouldconsumeupto25lessdieselsoreducingtheoverallfuelbillanddeliverprogressivelylargeremissionssavingsasthecarbonintensityofgridelectricityfalls.IfthevehiclealsoneedsairconditioningthecasefortheDEstrengthensfurtherparticularlyinhotterclimatessincetheengineextractsbothpowerandcoldfromthesameunitofliquidair.ThisisparticularlyinterestingforbuseswhereusingaDEtoprovideauxiliarypowerforcoolingandlightingthehotelloadwouldallowstop-starttechnologytobeintroducedmeaningtheICEisturnedoffcompletelywhenthevehicleisstationaryatbusstopsorintrafcwhichcancutdieselconsumptionbyanother10.TheDEwasteheatrecoveryconceptiscurrentlyatTRL3.HowevertheDearmanEngineCompanypredictsfullscaleprototypedemonstrationTRL6bytheendof2016.DearmanEngineRefrigerationPowerandCoolingTheDearmanenginecanalsooperateasazeroemissionandhighlyefcientTransportRefrigerationUnitTRUforvanslorriesandshippingcontainersreefersbecauseitextractsbothshaftpowerandcoldfromthesameunitofliquidairornitrogendeliveringimmediatesavingsinfuelcostsandcarbonemissions.Thesesavingswillbecomeincreasinglysignicantsincetheglobalrefrigeratedvehiclemarketisboomingdrivenlargelybychangingdietsinthedevelopingworldandexpectedtodoubleto6.8billionin2018.TheDearmancycle.SourceDearmanEngineCompany.