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6LIQUIDAIRTECHNOLOGIESAGUIDETOTHEPOTENTIALLiquidaircarswererstproducedaslongagoastheearly1900sbutinthosedaysthetechnologywascumbersomeandinefcientandsooneclipsedbytheinternalcombustionengineICE.ThebreakthroughcameintheearlyyearsofthiscenturywhentheBritishinventorPeterDearmanpicturedpatentedanovelandfarmoreefcientapproachwiththeDearmanengine.TheconceptwasfurtherdevelopedincollaborationwithscientistsattheUniversityofLeedsanditsoonbecamecleartheliquidaircyclecouldalsobeappliedtothebulkstorageofgridelectricityandmanyotherapplications.LiquidAirEnergyStoragewasdemonstratedonthegridin2011andtheDearmanenginewillstarton-vehicletestingin2014.TRANSPORTTheDearmanEngineTheDearmanengineDEisanovelpistonenginepoweredbythevaporisationandexpansionofliquidairornitrogen.ThenoveltyliesintheuseofaheatexchangeuidHEFthatpromotesextremelyrapidratesofheattransferinsidetheengineallowingtheDEtodispensewiththebulkyandinefcientexternalheatexchangerthathandicappedearliercryogenicenginedesigns.FirstwarmorevenambienttemperatureHEFisinjectedintothecylinderfollowedbyliquidairornitrogen.Thenastheuidsmixdirectheattransfercausesthecryogentoboilandexpandsopushingthepistondown.TheHEFcontinuestoprovideheatthroughoutthepowerstrokeleadingtoefcientisothermalexpansion.AfterwardsthecoolgaseousairexhaustsharmlesslytotheatmospherewhiletheHEFisre-heatedandre-used.TheDearmanenginecouldbeusedinanumberofcongurationsonitsownastheprimemoverorprincipalengineofazeroemissionsvehicleZEVcombinedwithaninternalcombustionengineICEtoformaheathybridorasapower-and-refrigerationunit.PeterDearmanhasalreadydemonstratedhisengineinamodiedcarandtheDearmanEngineCompanyDECisbuildingaprototypetobeginon-vehicleeldtrialsin2014withTechnologyStrategyBoardgrantfunding.TheDEsTechnologyReadinessLevelTRLonascaleof1to10iscurrentlyratedat4.Howeversincetheengineismadelargelyfromexistingpistonenginecomponentsitsdevelopmentisexpectedtobeshorterthanthatofothernovelenginedesigns.DECexpectsitsrefrigerationunittogointoeettrialsTRL7bytheendof2015.2PeterDearmaninventor.SourceDearmanEngineCompany.DearmanEngineZEVUsedonitsowntheDearmanengineisazeroemissionsenginewhoseexhaustconsistsonlyofcleancoldairornitrogen.Itisalsocapableoflowcarbonemissionsdependingonthecarbonintensityoftheelectricityusedtoproducethecryogen.Onthebasisoftheprojectedemissionsofovernight3electricityin2030theDEwouldhavelowerlifecyclecarbonemissionsthanbothelectricEVandfuel-cellFCVvehicles.LiquidairornitrogenhasasimilarenergydensitytothatofanEVbatterybutisfarquickertorefueltakingminutesnothours.SoasaZEVtheDearmanenginelendsitselftovehiclesthatareshorterrangehavealowerpowerrequirementoroperateonasinglesite.ModellingbyE4techsuggestspotentialmarketsincludefork-lifttrucksminingairportsinlandwaterways3-wheeltaxisortuktuksforemergingmarketsandinfuturecitycars.ThebreakthroughcamewhentheBritishinventorPeterDearmaninventedanovelandfarmoreefcientliquidairengine.3.LIQUIDAIRTECHNOLOGIES3Thecarbonintensityofovernightelectricitywillfallfasterthangridaveragebecauseofthedisproportionateimpactofgrowingwindcapacityduringperiodsoflowdemand.SeeCLCFLiquidAirintheenergyandtransportsystems20132TheTRLscitedinthisdocumentarethoseoftheAutomotiveCouncil.Fordenitionspleaseseepage23