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LIQUIDAIRTECHNOLOGIESAGUIDETOTHEPOTENTIAL5Britaincouldstarttobuildaliquidaireconomybasedonspareindustrialgasproductioncapacity.2.OVERVIEWLiquidairtechnologiescouldbedevelopedpiecemealbuttheenvironmentalandeconomicbenetswouldbefargreateriftheywereintegratedwitheachotherandwiththeexistingenergyinfrastructuretostoreandmakeuseofwrongtimeenergy.Whenthediverserolesofliquidairelectricitystoragegenerationtransportfuelandcoolingareallsuppliedfromasingletankofcryogenicuidwecouldbegintotalkofajoined-upliquidaireconomy.ApromisingplacetostartwouldbetheelevenindustrialgasproductionsitesacrossGreatBritainwhichhavesubstantialsurplusproductioncapacityforliquidnitrogenwhichperformsmuchthesameasliquidairandanationwidetankerdistributionnetwork.Thesecouldsupplyliquidnitrogentostoragetanksinlocationssuchasindustrialparksbusandhaulagedepotsandtowncentresupanddownthecountry.Oncethesurplusliquidnitrogencapacityhasbeenputtogoodusenewairliqueersharnessingwrong-timerenewableenergycouldbebuiltinstrategiclocationstoexpandsupply.Anewstoragetankorliqueersitedatanindustrialparkforexamplemightsupplyarangeofneighbouringbusinessesfordifferentpurposes.Adatacentremightneedliquidairforcoolingandforacryogenicback-uppowergeneratorwhilealogisticscompanymightwantfuelfordieselliquidairhybridlorriesandzero-emissionforklifttrucks.Theliqueercouldbeintegratedwithacryogenicgeneratorandanearbybiomasspowerstationtocreateanefcientenergystorageplantabsorbinglowcarbonelectricityovernightanddeliveringitbacktothegridatpeaktimeswhileconvertingthewasteheatfromthebiomassplantintoextrapower.Asupermarketdistributionhubontheotherhandmightinstallalargeliquidairtanktoberegularlyrelledfromthenearestliqueerwhichcouldsupportitslorryrefrigerationunitsforklifttrucksandaback-upgeneratorforemergencypower.Ametropolitanbusdepotcouldadoptasimilarapproachwithalargetanktosupportbothitsbuseetandageneratorforgridbalancing.Thepotentialofliquidairisonlybeginningtobecomeapparentanditseemslikelythatfurtheropportunitieswillemergeasourunderstandingimproves.Forafullerexplorationoftheliquidaireconomypleaseturntosection4.BOX2TheliquidaireconomyAutomotivetechnologiestheUKscurrentcapabilityEnergyRecoveryStorageTechnologiesElectricalMechanicalKineticThermalElectroChemistryElectrostaticCompGasCryogenicFluidsHighTempCategoryTechnologyExampleLithium-ionChemistriesNickelMetalHydrideVRLeadAcidDerivativesNextGenAirLiNaZnAlHydraulicAccumulatorAirExpansionEngineLiquidAirExpansionEngineLN2ExpansionEngineSodiumChemistriesLiquidAluminiumRankineMoltenSaltsRankineCycleHiSpeedFlywheelCarbonFibreMechDriveCarbonFibreElecDriveSuperUltracapacitorsLowTempLowTempWaxesandSaltsVehicleenergyandstoragetechnologies.SourceAutomotiveCouncil.