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ABOUTTHECENTREFORLOWCARBONFUTURESTheCentreforLowCarbonFuturesisacollaborativemembershiporganisationthatfocusesonsustainabilityforcompetitiveadvantage.FormedbytheUniversityofBirminghamUniversityofHullUniversityofLeedsUniversityofShefeldandUniversityofYorkweworkacrosstheEUAsiaandLatinAmerica.TheCentrebringstogetherengineersnaturalscientistsandsocialscientiststodeliverhighimpactresearchonour201314themesofEnergySystemsGreenGrowthandSmartInfrastructure.CLCFisdevelopingaseriesofTechnologyInsightssponsoredbyandinconjunctionwithindustry.TheseinsightsaimtoreducesomeoftheuncertaintiessurroundingthevastarrayoftechnologyoptionsandcomplementtheevidencebasedresearchreportsproducedbyCLCFbyprovidingamorepracticalguidetothepotentialusesofemergingtechnologies.CLCFisgratefulforfundingandsupportfromANAPeruAccentureBeijingInstituteofTechnologyBirminghamCityCouncilBrazilianEmbassytoLondonBritishDeputyHighCommissionofIndiaBritishEmbassyofBeijingBritishEmbassyofBrasiliaBritishEmbassytoColombiaBritishEmbassytoPeruBritishEmbassytoTokyoCentreforSustainableDevelopmentStudiesColumbiaCEIDChinaBeijingEnvironmentalExchangeCBEExCommitteeonClimateChangeoftheUKCCCDepartmentofBusinessInnovationandSkillsUKDepartmentofEnergyandClimateChangeUKDECCEnergyIntensiveUsersGroupICLEI-LocalGovernmentsforSustainabilityTokyoIndianChamberofCommerceInter-AmericanDevelopmentBankIADBInternationalInstituteforSustainableDevelopmentIISDJadavpurUniversityIndiaLeedsCityCouncilMinistryofEnvironmentPeruMINAMNationalPhysicalLaboratoryOECDRegionalDevelopmentAgencyRoyalAcademyofEngineeringTradesUnionCongressTecnolgicodeMonterreyMexicoTransportResearchLaboratoryUniversityCollegeLondonWorldwideUniversitiesNetworkWUNUniversityofShefeldUniversityofHullUniversityofLeedsUniversityofYorkUniversityofBirmingham.CONTACTSJonPricedirectorCLCFjon.pricelowcarbonfutures.orgTobyPetersdirectorLAENtoby.petersliquidair.org.ukEnquiresforsponsoringfutureTechnologyInsightstoinfolowcarbonfutures.orgABOUTTHELIQUIDAIRENERGYNETWORKWorkingwiththeBirminghamCentreforCryogenicEnergyStorageBCCESandtheCentreforLowCarbonFuturesCLCFtheLiquidAirEnergyNetworkLAENwasfoundedtoexplorethepotentialofliquidairasanenergyvectorandtoensureBritainmaintainsitsleadinthispromisingnewtechnologyandsecuresthefullenergyenvironmentalandeconomicbenets.Itsresearchisconductedincollaborationwithtechnologydevelopersindustryuniversitiesandpartnerorganisations.Thisistherstreportinaseriesofpolicyandtechnologyguides.Formoreinformationpleasevisitwww.liquidair.org.uk.SOURCESTheinformationandestimatesinthisbriengnotehavebeendrawnfromanumberofsourcesincludingtheCentreforLowCarbonFuturesreportLiquidAirintheenergyandtransportsystemsMay2013addinISBNnumberconsultantsE4techRicardoUKandSpiritusConsultingliquidairtechnologydevelopersHighviewPowerStorageandtheDearmanEngineCompanyandtheLiquidAirEnergyNetworkLAEN.SomesourcessuchasthemodellingandforecastsbyE4techandRicardoareunpublished.WITHTHANKSLAENwouldliketothankemployeesofAirProductsE4techRicardoUKSpiritusConsultingBirminghamCentreforCryogenicEnergyStorageUniversityofBirminghamCentreforLowCarbonFuturesDearmanEngineCompanyHighviewPowerStorageforcontributingtoorreviewingthispaper.DISCLAIMERWhiletheinformationpresentedinthisreportisbelievedtoberobustandofferedingoodfaithweacceptnoliabilityforitsusebyotherparties.October2013