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16LIQUIDAIRTECHNOLOGIESAGUIDETOTHEPOTENTIALTypicallytheyoperateliqueersonlyatnightwhenelectricityischeaperandavoidpeaktimessohelpingtobalanceoverallsupplyanddemand.Itwouldnotbeahugeleapforoperatorstoinstallgeneratingequipmentandusetheirexcessnitrogentoexportpowertothegridatpeaktimes.IneffectAirSeparationUnitswouldbecomeLAESplantsliquefyingatnightgeneratingatpeaktimeswhilecontinuingtosupplytheirtraditionalcustomerswithcryogenicgases.TheindustrialgasindustryinBritainhassignicantspareproductioncapacityinbothliquidandgaseousnitrogenandeithercouldbeusedinplaceofliquidairtosupportearlydeployment.AccordingtotheCLCFreportsparegaseousnitrogenproductioncapacitycouldamounttoasmuchas8500tonnesperdayalthoughmakinguseofitonthegridwouldrequireinvestmentinadditionalliqueersandgeneratingequipment.OnthisbasistheindustrialgasindustrycollectivelycouldAswehaveshownliquidairtechnologiescouldintegratewithawiderangeofequipmentacrosstheelectricitygastransportandindustrialsectorstodelivermajorsavingsinenergycarbonandcost.Thisisnotremotelytosuggestliquidairisasilverbulletbutitcouldhelptotacklethreeofthetoughestchallengesofthelow-carbontransitionbalancinganelectricitygridincreasinglydominatedbyintermittentrenewablesseeBox3page19providingafast-refuellingandlow-carbontransportfuelandharvestinglowgradewasteheat.Sincetheserolescanbeintegratedwitheachotherandwithmanyexistingtechnologieswemightsoonbegintotalkofaliquidaireconomy.4.THELIQUIDAIRECONOMYItwouldbeanitrogenratherthanliquidaireconomyatrstsimplybecausetheindustrialgascompanieshavesubstantialsparenitrogenproductioncapacityandanationwidetankerdistributionnetworkamajoradvantageoversomeotherpotentiallowcarbonenergyvectorssuchashydrogen.Liquidairandnitrogenhavesimilarthermo-physicalpropertiesandinBritaintheexistingsparecapacitywouldbeampletosupporttheearlydeploymentofliquidairtechnologiesseeIntroduction.SoapromisingplacetostarttointegrateliquidairtechnologieswouldbetheelevenindustrialgasproductionsitesacrossGreatBritain.IndustrialgasproducersTheindustrialgasproducersarealreadycloselyinvolvedinthemanagementoftheelectricitygrid.Airseparationisanenergyintensivebusinessthatconsumesabout3oftheUKelectricitysupplyandproducersareacutelyattunedtowholesalepowerprices.Theindustrialgasesindustryhasdevelopedoverthepastcenturyandmostofthecountryiswithineasydeliverydistanceofoneofitsproductionsites.MapofUKindustrialgasproductionsites.Eachsiteismarkedwitha50and100mileradiustoindicatethepotentialdeliverycatchmentarea.SourceLiquidAirEnergyNetwork.