Page 1
Page 2
Page 3
Page 4
Page 5
Page 6
Page 7
Page 8
Page 9
Page 10
Page 11
Page 12
Page 13
Page 14
Page 15
Page 16
Page 17
Page 18
Page 19
Page 20
Page 21
Page 22
Page 23
Page 24
Page 25
Page 26
Page 27
Page 28
Page 29
Page 30
Page 31
Page 32
Page 33
Page 34
Page 35
Page 36
Page 37
Page 38
LiquidAirMediaCoverage201213AprilEdition2013ATSEFocusIsliquidairthemissinglinkinenergystoragePage238April13ocus.a..aenergyonquicklybatterieswhereasothersrequireaewminutesbeoreprovidinganenergysupplyheathydroelectric.Teplaceodeploymentodierenttechnologiesislikelytobeatcityregionhomeandpersonaldomesticdevicelevel.Verylarge-scalestoragecapacityislikelytobeassociatedwithindustrialoperationsoratpointsogenerationanddistribution.Teroleotheelectricitydistributionnetworkanditsexibilityisanessentialcomponentinthedeliveryandoverallcostandviabilityoanystoragescheme.Clearlythepointodeploymentaectsthegriddemandandmethodsthroughwhichitmaybecontrolled.Conventionalbatteriesodierenttypeshavetheirplacebutthesocietalneedispressingstronglyoranalternativetobatteries.Tisisnotonlydrivenbyrealisationothecostresourcewasteulnessenvironmentalimpactandscarcityassociatedwithrareearthcomponentsbutalsoagrowingpublicmisgivingaboutsaety.Tenumberobattery-relatedsaetyincidentshasbeengrowingrapidlyoverthepastewyearsrelatingtovehicularandairtransportationcomputerslarge-scalebatteryparksandwindsolaron-sitestoragelocations.Terearealternatives.ForexampleintheUKthereisagrowinginterestinthenotionocryogenicliquids.Tesearereportedtobeatalowercostpointandmorelikelytobesuitablewheresolarenergycanbeusedtodrivecompressorstocompressairtoliquidairascryogenicuids.Liquidairispotentiallyanenergyvectorinitselandvaporisationotheliquidusinglow-gradewasteheatmakesoraveryecientsystemthatthendrivesagenerator.Teround-tripeciencyothesesystemsrivalsbatteries.Tesehavenowbeendemonstratedatasmallscalewith350kW2.5MWhscaleoron-gridelectricalstorageandurtherdevelopmentstoscaleouttobeyond10MWunderway.Systemso100MWormorewithGWhsostoragearedeliverableusingexistingsupplychainsandcomponentsSomecomparisonsoestimatedcostsorcomparativestoragesystemshavebeenmootedable1.Suchsystemsoerameansorlow-costo-gridgenerationtosmoothpowerrequirementsasdemonstratedinarbitragebeneftsinUKandtoprovidesecurityosupplybycreatinganationalreserve.Liquidairisalsouseabledirectlyasauelandthefrstcarsthatrunonairarecurrentlybeingevaluatedandattractingsignifcantattention.TeconceptoliquidairasanenergyvectorisbasedontheactthatAustraliaastheUKhasanexistinginrastructuretosupportearlyadoption.Tetechnologyderivesrommaturesupplychaincomponentswithprovenlongliewhosecostsareknown.Liquidairstorageisatloworatmosphericpressureresultinginlow-costabove-groundsaebulktanks.Tereisnouelcombustionrisk.Terearenogeologicalgeographicalconstraintstolocationostoresordistributionpathways.Teenergydensityoliquidaircomparesavourablytootherlow-carboncompetitors.Finallythereisgreatsynergywithotherindustrialprocessesincludinguseowasteheatandprovisionocold.FurtherthereistheoptionousingliquidairasanenergyvectortotransportthisstoredenergyaroundbyroadasiscurrentlydoneorshipaswithLNG.AmajorreviewothisopportunityisunderwayandthismayhaveprooundapplicationinAustraliaiitturnsoutthatliquidaircanbeusedasauel.MeanwhiletheUKEnergyandClimateChangeMinisterJohncryogenion-gridenergytorage2.5mWdeontrationplantinsloghuk.Table1Comparativeenergystoragecostestimatestszamwcaakwcaakwegaaquavaap280-5302500-4300420-43076-85rqancAesaf180960-115060-12046-48rqavnnasba503100-3300520-55068nyba501450-1750290-35060nyhvces10-200900-1900260-53050-80nnd.