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LiquidAirMediaCoverage20121330May2013TelegraphLiquidAirthefutureofmotoringPage1HOMENEWSWORLDSPORTFINANCECOMMENTBLOGSCULTURETRAVELLIFEFAWomenMotoringHealthPropertyGardeningFoodHistoryRelationshipsExpNewsCarReviewsManufacturersFestivalofMotoringGoodwoodTopGearAlexeiHOMEMOTORINGGREENMOTORINGByAndrewEnglish1242PMBST31May20135CommentsEngineerscallitdisruptivetechnologybutLiquidAirismuchmorethanthat.Usingcryogenicatmosphericairatminus196degreesCentrigradeasanenergystorepotentiallyinvertsourideaofthepistonengineandsubvertstheplansofrivalenergystorageschemeswhichpromotehydrogenordiscardedautomobilebatteries.Cryogenicairisknowntechnologyofcourse.Nitrogenwhichforms78percentofatmosphericairwasfirstliquefiedin1883throughaprocessofrepeatedcompressionexpansionandheatextraction.TheLiquidAirCompanyofBostonMassachusettsproducedthefirstcryogenicliquidpoweredcar.Formedin1899andinreceivershipjustthreeyearslaterthecompanywasashort-livedaffairbutthecardidrunandwasdemonstratedbyitsinventorHansKnudsenin1902.Apparentlyitdrovesome40milesat12mphon15gallonsofliquidair.ShareFacebookTwitterEmailLinkedInMotoringMotoringNewsScienceAndrewEnglishGreenMotoringInMotoringLiquidAirthefutureofmotoringLiquidAircouldbebeafuelforthefuturesaysAndrewEnglish.Thelow-energydensityofliquid-airstoragemeansthatitcouldrivalelectricbatterypowersaysAndrewEnglish5021290ProfessorofAppliedThermodynamicsatLoughboroughUniversitytheycandothingswiththat.RelatedArticlesHowtosavemoneyonfuel15May201310mosteconomicalcarsof201320Mar2013Whyelectriccarscouldbesoldlikephones13May2013BMWi3theinsidestory25Apr2013Top10electricandhybridcars23Apr2013DrivenSmartForTwoElectric18Apr2013PeterDearmananinventorandengineerwasfascinatedbytheideaofrunninganengineonliquidair.HecouldseethepotentialwhenheleftschoolintheSixtiesbuttheproblemwasthebulkandinefficiencyofcryogenicliquid-fuelledengineswhichusedheatexchangerstogasifytheliquidnitrogenorair-bothformsarelargelyinterchangeablebuttheformerismainlyusedinresearchenginesasitischeapandreadilyavailable.ItwasareportfromWashingtonStateUniversitywhichconcludedthatsuchcoldenginescouldonlyattainreasonableefficienciesiftheliquidairexpandedataconstanttemperatureisothermicallythatsparkedDearmanseurekamoment.Hehitupontheideaofinjectingtheliquidairontoathermaltransfermediumorthermalliquidtypicallyglycolanti-freezewhichwouldbeatambienttemperature.Themixingofthesetwofluidswiththeirwildlydifferenttemperaturescausestheliquidnitrogentoboilrapidlyandexpandinthechamberanddriveapistoninatwo-strokecyclealthoughthereisnotcompressionstrokeintheDearmanengine.AtthebottomofthepistonsstroketheexhaustportisexposedandinDearmansoverheadcamshaftresearchengineanexhaustvalveatthetopoftheengineopensandtherisingpistonpushesthethermalfluidandairoutoftheengine.PeterDearmanCertainlytheideahaspotential.Justonelitreofviscousbluecryogenicliquidairstoredinavacuumflaskistheequivalentof700litresofatmosphericair.Onreleasetheliquidquicklyboilsexpandsby700percentandreturnsharmlesslybacktotheatmosphere.ItsthatexpansionthatcanbeusedtodriveturbinesorpistonenginessuchastheDearmanEngine.EngineerslikethatexpansionsaysColinGarnerThree-wheelersgrouptestTriumphStreetTriplereviewInGreenMotoringThebestgreencarsonsaleIknewthatifyoucouldexpandtheliquidairisothermallyitwouldbecomparableinefficiencytootherenergysourcessaidDearman.AndIknewthatifIcouldbuildanenginethatusedthisprincipleIdbeabletosaythatsthebitIcando.Thethermalliquidisrecoveredandreusedafterrunningthrougharadiatorwhichbringsitbackuptoambienttemperaturebutifyoucanscavengelow-levelheatfromthevehicleoritscabinyoucanraisethetemperatureofthethermalfluidtoincreasetheefficiencyoftheexpansionprocess.Aconventionalinternalcombustionenginelosesathirdofitspotentialpowerthroughheatingthecoolantandanother35percenttotheexhaustgases.TheDearmanengineisabletoscavengelargeamountsofthislow-levelwasteheatwhichbringsthepotentialofhybridapplicationswithconventionalengines.ThereisalsothepossibilityofusingtheDearmanengineinhybridapplicationsinbusesscavengingthecabinheatfrompassengersorinrefrigeratedvehicleswheretheenergyfromthehotfoodcoolinginthebackcanhelpdrivethevehicle.Machinesworkinginmineswheregettingridofheatisaproblemarealsoapotentialmarket.RicardotheSussex-basedengineeringconsultancyhasbeenworkingontheDearmanconceptforalmosttwoyearsandisexploringthepossibilitiesfortheunitwhichincludeshybridisingitsownsplit-cycleenginewhichsplitstheintakecompressionstrokesandpowerexhauststrokesofafour-strokeenginebetweenseparatecylinders.DrAndrewAtkinsRicardoschieftechnologyengineersaystheDearmanengineisalsohighlysuitableforusewiththeAtkinsonorMillercyclestoimproveefficiency.AndColinGarnerevenpositsfutureexamplesoftheDearmanenginewhichcouldbebuiltoflow-costplasticsoralloyswhichwouldgivesignificantpriceadvantagescomparedwithcomplexbatteries.Suchadrivetrainwouldalsohavesignificantend-of-liferecyclingadvantagescomparedwithbatteries.InaconferenceonthepotentialofLiquidAironMay9atTheRoyalAcademyofEngineeringtherewerepapersonthepracticalityandtheoreticaleconomicsoftheproject.