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LiquidAirintheenergyandtransportsystemsOpportunitiesforindustryandinnovationintheUKLiquidAirMediaCoverageOctober2012-July2013 LiquidAirMediaCoverage201213LiquidAirintheenergyandtransportsystemsOpportunitiesforindustryandinnovationintheUKTheconceptofLiquidAirsprangtonationalprominenceinMay2013withagroundbreakingreportfromtheCentreforLowCarbonFuturesCLCFentitledLiquidAirintheenergyandtransportsystemsOpportunitiesforindustryandinnovationintheUKpresentedataconferencehostedbytheRoyalAcademyofEngineering.ThereportandconferenceexploredhowLiquidAircouldserveasanovelenergyvectortohelpreducegreenhousegasemissionsraiseenergysecurityandboosttheeconomyandjobs.ContributorstotheninemonthstudylaunchedwiththeInstitutionofMechanicalEngineersincludedNationalGridArupRicardoPoyryMesserGroupandacademicsfromtheUniversitiesofLeedsBirminghamStrathclydeBrightonQueenMaryUniversityofLondonandImperialCollege.ThereportwassponsoredbyArupandMesserandtheconferencewassupportedbyRicardo.Attachedisasummaryofthemediacoverage.TobyPetersFoundingDirectorLiquidAirEnergyNetworkTheCLCFreportfoundthatLiquidAircouldReducedieselconsumptioninbusesorfreightvehiclesby25usingaliquidairdieselhybridCutemissionsfromrefrigerationonfoodlorriesby80basedoncurrentgridaverageelectricityProvideacost-effectivemeansofstoringgridelectricityinbulktohelpbalanceintermittentrenewablegenerationandreducegridemissionscreatinganindustryworthatleast1bnpaand22000jobsStrengthenUKenergysecurityasinglegasometer-styletankofliquidaircouldmakegoodthelossof5GWofwindpowerforthreehours-equivalenttoalmost10oftheUKspeakelectricityneedsReplacedieselgensetstoprovidezero-emissionback-upandreserveservicesandharvestwasteheatfromindustrialprocessesProvidezero-emissionsvehicleandpowersolutionsinminingandotherindustriesRoyalAcademyofEngineeringandCentreforLowCarbonFuturesConference9thMay2013LiquidAirEnergyNetworkinfoliquidair.org.ukTel442032891907www.liquidair.org.ukProf.RichardWilliamsPro-Vice-ChancellorUniversityofBirminghamProf.NevilleJacksonChiefTechnologyandInnovationOfcerRicardoandProf.NigelBrandonDirectoroftheEnergyFuturesLabImperialCollegeLondon.DrPhilCarterHeadofCommercialUKLNG LiquidAirMediaCoverage201213MediaListTelevisionDateHeadlinePublication2October2012LiquidairoffersenergystoragehopeBBCNews2October2012WhatIsLiquidAirAndHowIsitUsedToStoreEnergyBBCWorldNews3October2012BritnicoinventacarromovidoaarcongeladoBBCBrazil7October2012LiquidAirCouldBeTheFuelOfTheFutureSkyNews7December2012LiquidairfuturefuelsgarageinventorCNNInternational30January2013CanLiquidNitrogenBeUsedtoFuelCarsBloombergTV17March2013CarRunsonNothingButAirABCNews10May2013ProfessorRichardWilliamsdiscussesthepotentialofLiquidAirEnergySkyNews14June2013EnergyFromEnergyTheBusinessofStoringPowerBloombergTVDateHeadlinePublication2October2012DrTimFoxfromIMechEbeinginterviewedbyRogerHarrabinaboutLiquidAirBBCRadio4TodayProgramme2October2012BreakfastShowBBCRadio52October2012LiquidAirwasfeaturedontheAnneDiamondshowwithaninterviewwithGarethBrettBBCRadioBerkshire2October2012DrTimFoxfromIMechEdiscussingLiquidAirBBCRadioDevon2October2012DrTimFoxfromIMechEdiscussingLiquidAirBBCRadioLive5BreakfastandLiveDrive2October2012DrTimFoxfromIMechEdiscussingLiquidAirBBCRadioScotland2October2012LiquidAirwasfeaturedontheRobertoPerroneshowBBCRadioThreeCountiesRadio4October2012ABCRadioMelbourneBreakfastwithRedSymonsABCRadioMelbourneMediaListRadio LiquidAirMediaCoverage201213MediaListPrintedandOnline-Page1DateHeadlinePublication26September2012LiquidairtofuelUKlowcarbonengineeringeconomyPlantEngineer27September2012LiquidairAnewindustryforUKPlcRenewableEnergyMagazine28September2012LiquidairofciallaunchthiseveningaglimpseatourenergyfutureGasWorld1October2012LiquidairThebirthofthenitrogeneconomysupplementGasWorld2October2012BBCChina2October2012AirelquidopararesolverungrandesafodelaingenieraBBCSpain2October2012Bectn2October2012FrozenAirBatteryStoresWindTurbineEnergyDiscoveryChannel2October2012dnevnik2October2012VloeibareluchtoplossingvoorenergieopslagDuurzaamBedrijfsleven2October2012BritishcompanyoffersefcientenergystorageusingliquidairExtremeTech2October2012TurningairintoliquidtostoreenergyNewsTrackIndia2October2012EnergiebysevbudoucnudalaskladovatvkapalnmvzduchuNovinky2October2012LiquidAirAnEfcientEnergyStorageSystemOilPrice2October2012ColdstorageProfessionalEngineering2October2012ThelatestrenewableenergyLiquidairSmartPlanet2October2012LiquidAirCouldBeTheFuelOfTheFutureYahooNews3October2012LiquidairoffersenergystoragehopeBalticNewsNetwork3October2012SoWhatIsLiquidAirEnergyCatalystEnergySolutions3October2012ExcessivewindturbineenergystoredasliquidairDigitalJournal3October2012LiquidairmadeasplashProfessionalEngineering3October2012BritishCompanyPresentsLiquidAirAsEnergyStorageSolutionTheEnergyCollective3October2012Liqueed-airsilostoutedasenormogreenleccybatteriesTheRegister4October2012-EnergySafe4October2012LiquidAirHoldstheKeytoRenewableEnergyStorageEnviroNews4October2012FrozenaircouldheatuprenewableenergyNBCNews4October2012ItsPeopleLikePeterDearmanwhomakeusgreatNewsStar4October2012FrozenAirBatteriesCouldStoreWindEnergyforPeakDemandTreeHugger5October2012Energie-opslaginvloeibareluchtTechnisch10October2012CouldFrozenAirHeatUpEnergyStorageSustainableBusiness11October2012ThisNewBatteryWillStoreExcessWindPowerUsingtheAirItselfGizmodo12October2012StromspeicherhebtWindenergieinFormvonLuftaufGizmodo15October2012CryogenicshaskeyroleinrenewableenergystorageideaACRNews15October2012DifferenceEngineEndoftheelectriccarEconomist17October2012IndustrymullspotentialofliqueedairasenergystoreHVNews31October2012PioneeringBritishtechnologiesthatcouldhelptostoreenergyInstitutionofMechanicalEngineers28November2012LiquidaircompanyrecognisedatIETInnovationAwardsGasWorld LiquidAirMediaCoverage201213MediaListPrintedandOnline-Page212December2012FirstLiquidAirEnergyreportSouthernAfricanAlternativeEnergyAssociation18December2012FirstliquidairmainstreamenergyreportgetsunderwayPlantEngineer21December2012FirstLiquidAirenergyreportreadyGasWorld2January2013ExclusiveDelabroyWecannotignoreliquidairGasWorld2January2013IntothinairStoragesalvationforgreenenergyNewScientist30January2013CanLiquidNitrogenBeUsedtoFuelCarsPlanetForward1February2013WindktaftindieFlascheNewScientistGermany7February2013RunningonhotairAllianzKnowledge4March2013ThemissinglinkwhyAustralianeedsenergystorageTheConversation17March2013FullofhotairEnglishinventorclaimstocreategreenair-poweredvehicleDailyNews22March2013RoyalAcademyofEngineeringtohostconferenceonLiquidAirHVNews26March2013RAEhostsone-dayconferenceonLiquidAirEnergyRenewableEnergyMagazineAprilEditionIsliquidairthemissinglinkinenergystorageATSEFocus6May2013AirLiquidedriveneraorwillcomeTechnicaloutlookhastech.919May2013RenewablePowerCouldBeStoredasLiquidAirU.K.LobbySaysBloomberg9May2013Liquidairenergystoragecouldbecome1bnindustryEngineeringandTechnologyMagazine9May2013Liquidaircouldunlock1bnbusinessand22000UKjobsGasWorld9May2013LiquidAirEnergyNetworkformsinUKfocusontransportationandenergystorageGreenCarCongress9May2013FirstcommercialliquidairplantamongUKcompetitionwinnersPlantEngineer10May2013LiquidaircouldboostUKenergysecurityhelpdecarbonisetransportE2B10May2013LiquidAirEnergyStorageCouldBeanEconomySaverintheUKElectric.co.uk10May2013LiquidAirExplainedGasWorld10May2013LiquidairtechnologywillboostUKsenergysecuritysaysreportPower-technology.com10May2013LiquidaironstoragemenureNews10May2013RicardoplcRicardocontributestolandmarkreportonliquidairasasustainableenergyvectorRicardo10May2013Liquidaircouldunlock1bnindustryArup10May2013LiquidAirEnergyNetworkLAENformedintheUKTheUKEnergyResearchCentreUKERC12May2013TwoliquidairprojectsthroughtofeasibilitystageofcompetitionGasWorld17May2013Liquidaircouldunlock1bnindustryYourRenewableNews20May2013LiqueedAirCouldPowerCarsandStoreEnergyfromSunandWindMITTechnologyReview23May2013MessersupportsliquidairstudyGasWorld30May2013LiquidAirthefutureofmotoringTelegraph1June2013TheanswerisintheairTheEnergyIndustryTimes3June2013LiquidAirthefutureofmotoringTehranTimes4June2013WhenthewindblowswemustcaptureitforacalmerdayTheConversation12June2013UKwarnstocryogenicenergystoresFinancialTimes13June2013LiquidAirthefutureofrenewableenergystoragePower-Technology.comJuly2013Liquidair-NitrogeneconomyorfalseeconomyGasworldJuly2013CoolRunningsEuroasiaIndustryJuly2013SolidFutureforLiquidAirProfessionalEngineering LiquidAirMediaCoverage201213July2013GasworldNitrogeneconomyorfalseeconomy-Page1storingittoprovidepeaktimeelectricityandorlowcarbontransportfuel.Itcanbeusedinprovengrid-scaleenergystoragesystemsHighviewPowerStoragehasbeenrunningapilotplanthostedbySSEinSloughfortwoyearsandanumberofnovelenginedesigns.Ithasalsooftenbeenpointedoutthatthiscouldhavesignicantbenetsandaddedrevenuesforthegasesindustry.Theproductionofliquidnitrogenandliquidoxygenthemaincomponentsofliquidairhasofcoursebeenpioneeredbytheindustrialgasesindustryforoveracentury.Thepropertiesofliquidnitrogenandliquidairaresimilarsoitisfeltthatacryogenicenergyvectorcouldbeprovidedbyeitherthegasesindustryhassurplusliquidnitrogenproductionbecausethereisfourtimesasmuchnitrogenasoxygeninwww.gasworld.comhottopic30HOTTOPICLiquidairNitrogeneconomyorfalseeconomyWhengasworldsexclusivesupplementbrokegroundwiththerstrealexplorationoftheliquidairconceptinOctoberlastyearfewwouldhavebeenfamiliarwiththenotionanditspotentialaprovenenergystoragetechnologythatcouldplayacriticalroleinBritainslowcarbonenergyfuture.Sincethentheliquidairprojecthasgatheredconsiderablemomentumbothinthemainstreamandtechnicalpressandbehindthescenesonitsnerdetails.AllofwhichculminatedinthelaunchofacomprehensivenewreportinMaytitledLiquidAirintheenergyandtransportsystemsOpportunitiesforindustryandinnovationintheUK.TheuseofliquidaircouldincreaseUKenergysecuritycutgreenhousegasemissionsandcreateastorageindustryworthatleast1bnpaand22000jobsthereportfound.PublishedbytheCentreforLowCarbonFuturesCLCFthereportconcludesthatliquidairtechnologiescouldalsosignicantlyincreasetheefciencyofroadvehiclesparticularlyinBritainseetsAsliquidaircontinuestogatherpaceandplauditsgasworldlooksatitsfeasibilityattheheartofwhichareindustrialgasesandexpertise.ofbusesvansandrefrigeratedlorries.KeyadvantagesarecitedasincludingAnabundantandcost-freefeedstockCryogenicliquidproductionitsdistributioninfrastructureanditsequipmentsupplychainarematureStorageisatlowpressureandthereisnofuelcombustionriskForgrid-basedstoragenogeographicalconstraintsaswithpumpedhydroorlarge-scalecompressedairenergystorageTheenergydensityofliquidaircomparesfavourablytolow-carboncompetitorsFortransportapplicationsveryfastrefuellingtimesarepossibleCostcompetitivetootherlow-carbontechnologiesCanitworkSoliquidairisheraldedasapioneeringsolutiontotheproblemofenergystoragecapturingwrongtimeenergysuchasexcessrenewableenergyproducedatnightwhenthereistoolittledemandandtheatmospherebutmuchlessdemandforitcommercially.Itisestimatedthatthereiscurrentlyanestimated8500tonnesperdayofoff-peakgaseousnitrogenavailableforliquefactionwhichifharnessedandusedastransportfuelwouldbeenoughtopowertheequivalentof6.5millioncarkilometersdaily.Itisthereforeprojectedthatasidefromtheexperienceandexpertisethatcouldbeprovidedtotheliquidairnetworkanitrogeneconomycouldinjectaddedrevenuestothegasesindustryinthefutureasitmakesuseofasurplusproduct.Ifittakesoffashopedanitrogeneconomycouldnotonlyhelptodecarboniseenergysupplybutcouldalsobethestimulusforanevenmoreprosperousindustrialgasesbusiness.WiththeindustryessentiallyattheheartofthisnewenergyfrontierwhatisitsresponsetoliquidairWhenaskedabouttheideainanexclusiveinterviewwithgasworldinParislastyearAirLiquidesVice-PresidentofRDOlivierDelabroywascautiouslyoptimisticdescribingitasclearlyourterritoryandsomethingwecannotignore.DelabroyexplainedthatAirLiquidealreadyutilisesliquidairforenergystorageinsomeofitsairseparationplantsandassociatedliquefactionunitsusingittoleveragethepricedifferencesbetweenpeakandoff-peakconsumption.Thisheclariesissomethingthecompanydoesbecauseitiseasytointegrateandexploit.Takingthetechnologybeyondthiskindofusagehoweverandintodeploymentasanenergyvectorinitsownrightissomethingthatrequiresmoreplanning.Ithinkthatyouhavetocomparewithalternativetechnologieshesaid.Todaywearecarefullylookingatthatthekeyfactororindicatorisofcoursethespreadofelectricitythatyouhavebetweenthemaximumdailypriceandtheminimum.HighviewPowerStorage LiquidAirMediaCoverage201213July2013GasworldNitrogeneconomyorfalseeconomy-Page2Thehighertheoptimumthatthepeakandoff-peakisthemoreeconomicalthistechnologycanbeandobviouslythecurrentenergy-electricityspreadisgoingtoincreasemaybedrasticallywiththedevelopmentofrenewables.Thedebatearoundgridbalancingisusuallypresentedintermsoftheneedforadditionalgas-redplantstorunwhenthewinddropsorthereareshortfallsinothermeansofenergy.Butthereisapowerfulcaseforadditionalgridstoragetoabsorbexcesswrongtimeenergyandwarehouseitforwhenrequiredpreventingitfrombeingwastedandallowingpowerplantstorunmoreefcientlyenterliquidair.Liquidairisbaseduponthesciencethataircanbeturnedintoaliquidbycoolingittoaround-196Cusingstandardindustrialequipment.Around700litresofambientairbecomesonelitreofliquidairwhichcanthenbestoredinaninsulatedvessel.Whenheatincludingambientorlow-gradewasteheatisreintroducedtoliquidairitboilsandregasiesexpanding700timesinvolume.Thisexpansioncanbeusedtodriveapistonengineorturbinetodousefulwork.Themainpotentialapplicationsareinelectricitystoragetransportandtherecoveryofwasteheat.Liquidairiscapableofconvertinglow-gradewasteheatintopoweratveryhighlevelsofefciencybecauseofitslowstartingtemperature-196C.Thiscomparesfavourablytootherwasteheatrecoverytechnologieswhosemaximumtheoreticalyieldsarelimitedtoabout20at100C.Itisuponthisscienceorbasicprinciplesthatmuchofthedebateintheindustryseemstorestconversionefcienciesandthereturnonenergyinput.Questionmarkslingerconcerningthelossesrecordedduringenergyconversion.Everytimeaconversionismadefromoneformofenergytoanotherapercentagehoweversmalloftheoriginalenergyislostdespitethecontinuingadvancesinbothturboexpanderandaircompressortechnology.Inadditiontoexpectationsoftheoverallcycleefcienciesdebatehasraisedthefactthattherecouldstillbeconsiderableneedforelectricalpowertorunthemainaircompressorintheairseparationplantswhichwouldtypicallyrelyoncoalorgas-redpowergenerationinaregionliketheUSforexample.AretheseshortcomingsDoesthisactuallyrenderthenitrogeneconomyafalseeconomyProdeepMookerjeeOwnerofRedesignConsultFZEandformerlyofCarbonicInternationaldoesnotappeartothinksocommentingNitrogenisnetsurplusintheairgasesmarketanditisthisattributeofbeingavailablefreeoratleastcheapandwouldinfactbecomeahotcommodity.Thiscouldinturnhaveaneffectonpricingstructures.ThenthereistheinfrastructurewillitprovecostlytoinstallthesupportinfrastructureachallengeincommonwithhydrogenThisiscounteredbythefactthatliquidairtechnologiesarebasedonstandardcomponentsandmaturesupplychainsandanextensivecryogenicdistributionnetworkexistsinallindustrialisedcountries.SupportThereisalreadyclearevidencethatthoseintheknowaboutgasesandliquidairareinterestedintheprojectviathestrategicpartnershipbetweentheMesserGroupandHighviewPowerStoragetheproponentsbehindliquidair.MesserofciallysupportedtheCLCFstudyofenergystorageusingliquidairandaheadofthereportslaunchexpertsfromtheenergysectormetatthecompanysheadquartersinBadSodenGermanytodiscusselectricitystoragewithliquidairtheresultsofwhichinformedthestudy.MesseriscontinuingtoworkonthiswithHighviewPowerStorageandTimEvisoninchargeofBusinessDevelopmentatMesserinBadSodensaidinastatementIamdelightedtoseethelevelofexcitementthatthepossibilitiesofcryogenictechnologieshavecreatedacrosssuchabroadswatheofexpertsfromacademiaenergyandindustry.Specicallyasregardstoenergystoragethereisaclearneedfortechnologydevelopmenttoensurefuturegridstabilityandtooptimisetheeconomicsofapowersupplybasedonrenewables.Thereportconrmsthatliquidairisoneattractiveapproachwhichshouldbepursuedbyindustrytheenergysectoruniversitiesandgovernmentinpartnership.AskedwhathisrstimpressionsoftheliquidairconceptwereThamesCryogenicsEuropeanSalesManagerDavidCooketoldgasworldFromacommercialpointofviewobviouslyImveryinterestedinthepotentialofliquidairastherearerealbusinessopportunitiesinitformycompanybywayofcryogenicpiping.Isitallapipe-dreamImnoteducatedenoughtohavegonethroughalltheguresandfactsandcometoaconclusionbasedonthesciencebuttomymindalotofpeoplewhoarecleverenoughhavecomeawaywiththeconclusionthatitisviable.Myguesswouldbethatenergystorageinconjunctionwithrenewablesforwrong-timeenergystorageisaveryrealpossibilityandwhilstitwonthappenovernightIdbeverysurprisediftherewerentcommercialplantsoperatingbytheendofthedecade.AsforliquidairintheautomotivesectorIthinkthismightbefurtheroffandwillprobablyenterbywayofnichemarketsinitiallyandthenasahybridsolutioninconjunctionwithothertechnology.TheDearmanEngineCompanyisinfactcurrentlyontracktodemonstratearstengineforwasteheathybridandcombinedpowerandcoolinglaterthisyear.Thiscanmeetthehere-and-nowchallengesfacingnichebutstillsignicantmarketsandcouldthereforebedeployedsoonerthanthenextdecadeweunderstand.PerhapsthereisonenaltopicalthoughttoadjournthisdiscussionwiththeriseinLNG.ThereisanurgentneedforelectricitystoragesolutionsinEuropebecausethetransitiontorenewableshasseenasurgeinelectricitygenerationfromwindandsolarpower.LiquidairelectricitygenerationcanturnwasteheatintopowerathighlevelsofefciencywhileexploitingwastecoldfromLNGre-gasicationatUKimportterminalswouldcuttheelectricityrequiredforairliquefactionbyalmost60andcostsbyhalf.AstheworldwakesuptotheprospectofLNG-fuelledeconomiesdoesthiswidenthewindowofopportunityforliquidairasanenergyvectorJuly201331HOTTOPICMyguesswouldbethatenergystorageinconjunctionwithrenewablesforwrong-timeenergystorageisaveryrealpossibility...belowattributablecostthatmakesitinterestinginascenariowherewasteheatorlow-gradeheatisalsoavailable.Thereisenergytoberecoveredleftoverfromgrossenergyalreadyexpendedforotherpurposesandtypicallylowgradeheatavailablefromalternativeenergyroutes.Thislattersourcegivesthesubjectresonance.Heresavalue-addedactivityacomingtogetherofenergysourcesthathavesynergisticattributesthesumismorethantheparts.BeholdtheNitrogenEconomy.Anotherquestionconcernstheimpactofliquidaironnitrogenasaproduct.Whileitistruethatthereiscurrentlysurplusproductinthemarketatpresentitischallengedwhethernitrogenwouldnolongerbejusttheby-productthatitisnow LiquidAirMediaCoverage201213July2013ProfessionalEngineeringSolidfutureforliquidair-Page1 LiquidAirMediaCoverage201213July2013ProfessionalEngineeringSolidfutureforliquidair-Page2 LiquidAirMediaCoverage20121314June2013BloombergTVEnergyFromEnergyTheBusinessofStoringPower LiquidAirMediaCoverage20121312June2013FinancialTimesUKwarnstocryogenicenergystores LiquidAirMediaCoverage2012134June2013TheConversationWhenthewindblowswemustcaptureitforacalmerdayWithoutenergystoragetechnologywereleavinggoodenergyblowinginthewind.DannyLawsonPAUKbetaAUUKbeta4June20136.46amBSTWhenthewindblowswemustcaptureitforacalmerdayRichardWilliamsPro-ViceChancellorandHeadoftheCollegeofEngineeringandPhysicalSciencesatUniversityofBirminghamDISCLOSURESTATEMENTRichardWilliamsreceivesfundingfromRCUKandCentreforLowCarbonFutures.HeundertakesresearchwithHighviewPowerSystems.ThehandlingofBritainsenergystrategyleavesmuchtobedesiredsubjectasitistoshorttermpoliticsoverlongtermplanning.Wefaceatrilemmathatstemsfromtheopposingtensionofclimatechangeenergysecurityandthecostofelectricitygeneration.ThesearetheelephantsinthechamberduringthisweeksparliamentarydiscussionoftheEnergyBill.Ifwearecommittedtoan80reductionofCO2emissionsby2050thentheUKneedstoinvestinnewstoragetechnologytosupportandenablerenewableenergy.Electricityusageisexpectedtodoubleby2050thescaleofthisgrowthissimplyhuge.InthenextfewyearsmanyoftheUKscoalplantswillcloseandallnuclearplantsareduetocloseinthenextdecade.Someofthismissingenergymaybereplacedbynewnuclearpowerstationsiftheyarebuilt.Butinthemeantimeoptionsincludewindexpensiveandintermittentgreateruseofgasturbineslockingusintohighcarbonelectricityorkeepingdirtycoalplantsopenlongeratanevenhighercarboncost.Atthemomentde-carbonisationreliesheavilyoncarboncaptureandstorageatechnologythatwillbeexpensiveandhasyettobedemonstratedonalargescale.Publictolerationforrisingenergypricesisrunningthinespeciallyincomparisonwithothernations.Thereissignificantenergypoverty.ButtheUKneedstoinvestanestimated161billioninelectrificationinfrastructure.ItdoesnotseemcrediblethattheEnergyBillcanreversethelackofconfidenceprivateenterprisehasshowntoinvestintheUK.Pricehikescouldseeelectricitybillsathirdhigherby2020anddoubleby2030.SowhydowetolerateamarketplacethatthrowsawaylastnightsenergyfromwindfarmsthatshouldhavebeencapturedforusetodayThatwearesubsidisingthecostsofwindfarmsonlytodumptheenergytheygenerateisclearlyabhorrent.Theansweristhatwehavenocosteffectivewaytoprovideforthestorageofenergy.Thisiswhythereisagrowingimperativetoconvincepolicymakersandresearcherstoensurethatlargescaleenergystoragesolutionsareexplored.HereattheUniversityofBirminghamwehavebeenexploringenergystorageusinghydrogenfuelafuelwithitsownfillingstationthatrunsaboattrainandcars.Wearealsocommittedtoopening-upnewmethodsinuseofcleanliquidairenergystoragethatcompressesairintocryogenicallyfrozenliquid.Batterieshavetheirplacebutifprogressistobemadeweneedlowcostlargecapacitystoragesolutionsthatdonotconsumemineralandmetalresourcesandweneedthemfast.Securityofsupplyisanon-goingconcern.Wearedependentongasimportsandarelikelytoremainso.GermanyhasexperiencedtheimpactofitsownenergypoliciesrelyingonnuclearenergyexportedfromFranceandexperiencingdozensofsupplyshortfallsthathaverequiredinterventioninrunningthenationalgridsystem.SecurityofsupplyisthemajorchallengefacingmanyEuropeannations.TheworldhasmovedonsoquicklycanwebenimbleandsecureourenergyneedsWrongtimewrongplaceenergysuchasthecaseofwindfarmsgeneratingenergyatnightwhenfewpeopleneeditisendemicwithrenewablesystems.Wemustfindwaystostorethatenergyanddispatchitwhenneededsothisfieldurgentlyneedsspecialconsiderationsinlegislationregulationandmarketstimulation.ThereisagreatprospectofdeliveringahigherpercentageofrenewablesintheUKbutthecurrenttimelineisnotwellconceived.Abackstopofnuclearandfossilfuelswillbeneededasabufferbeforeproperstoragetechnologycanensurethesupplysecurityrenewableswillrequire.Andtoprovidestrongsignalstothemarkettoinvestinlowcarboninnovationtheremustbeclarityonfuturerevenuesandtransparencyoncosts.Moreworkneedstobedoneonsettingthecarbonfloorpriceandemissionsperformancestandards.Itsclearthatpoliticsneedstocatchupwiththepaceoftheeconomyastheappetiteforclimatechangeandde-carbonisationundergoesashiftacrossEurope.Nimblenesswillberequiredinafast-changingenvironmentthatincludestheappearanceofnewdevelopmentslikefrackingbutthisshouldnotdisplacecleardecisionmaking.Onesensesthatshort-termperspectivesbalancedongaswillwinthedayinplaceofcoherentlongtermambitions.TheEnergyBillneedstobeboldandensurethekeyissuesofdevelopingstoragetechnologypowercapacitysimplifyingbusinessdriversandcarbonintensityareaddressed.SignintoFavouriteCopyright20102013TheConversationTrustUK LiquidAirMediaCoverage2012131June2013TheEnergyIndustryTimesTheanswerisintheairTHEENERGYINDUSTRYTIMES-JUNE201315TechnologyLiquidairtechnologyhasthepotentialtoprovideutilityscaleenergystorageandefcientlyturnwasteheatintopower.JuniorIsleslooksatthistechnologywhichcouldhaveatremendousimpactontheenergysector.Thecryoenergysystemcanusewastecoldatthefront-endoftheprocesswhenliquefyingtheairandwasteheatattheback-endoftheprocessTheanswerisintheairBalancingsupplyanddemandingridsthatarehavingtoac-commodateanincreasingamountofintermittentrenewablegenerationsuchaswindandsolarisoneofthemajortechnicalchallengesfacingtodayspowersector.InSpainforexamplebetweenNo-vemberandFebruarywindfarmsproducedmoreelectricitythananyotherpowersourceforthersttimeever.Althoughtheincreasingamountofwindonthegridisgoodnewsfordecarbonisationeffortssuchhighwindpenetrationpresentstwomainchallengeshowtogeneratesufcientelectricitywhenwindoutputisloworzeroandhowtoabsorbexcessgenerationwhenwindoutputishighanddemandislow.Whileusinggasturbineorrecipro-catingengine-basedpeakingplantscantackletherstproblemthesec-ondrequiresanewapproach.Theuseofliquidairasanenergyvectorhasthepotentialtoaddressbothissues.Thetermenergyvectorisusedtodescribethemethodoftransportingenergyfromonelocationtoanotherandfromonepointintimetoanother.Hydrogenandthehydrogenecono-myforexamplehasbeenamuchtalkedaboutenergyvector.Howeveritsusefacesanumberoftechnicalandeconomicchallengesthatlookunlikelytobesolvedanytimesoon.Fairlyrecenttechnologybreak-throughsmakeliquidairseemamoreviableenergyvectoronethatcanbedeployedintheneartomid-term.AsaUKinnovationdevelopmentofthetechnologyisbeingsupportedbytheCentreforLowCarbonFu-turesCLCFwithinthescopeofitsprogrammeonenergystorage.ArecentreportpublishedbytheCLFCentitledLiquidAirintheen-ergyandtransportsystemsprovidesdetailsofthetechnologyandtheop-portunitiesforindustryandinnova-tionintheUK.Althoughtherehavebeennumerousattemptsoverthelastcenturytoex-ploitliquidairasignicantbreak-throughcamein2001whentheBrit-ishinventorPeterDearmandevelopedandpatentedtheDearmanEngine.ThekeytoDearmansbreakthroughwastherealisationthatliquidaircouldbevaporisedinsideanenginecylinderusingheatsuppliedbyathermaluidmixturesuchaswaterandglycoleliminatingtheneedforthebulkyandinefcientexternalheatexchangersoftraditionalcryogenicengines.Itwasnotuntil2006howeverthatthepossibilitiesforDearmanstech-nologyinthepowersectorbegantotakeshapewhenUK-basedHighviewPowerStoragebegantodeveloptheDearmanEnginetechnology.Work-ingwiththeUniversityofLeedsHighviewdevelopedaseriesofef-ciencyenhancementstotheliquidaircyclebyintegratingtheproductionandexpansionprocessestomakeuseofwasteheatandcoldsomakingtheconceptofagridscaleenergystoragesystemeconomicallyviable.Withaworkingpilotoperatingsuc-cessfullyinSloughHighviewisnowproposingtwodemonstrationprojectsthatwillusethetechnologyforpow-ergenerationinacommercialsetting.TherstwouldseeHighviewwork-ingwithNationalGridandUK-engi-neeringcompanyCostaintobuildtheUKsrstgridscaleliquidairenergystorageplantatNationalGridsGrainLiqueedNaturalGasLNGimportterminalontheIsleofGraininKent.ForthesecondprojectViridoroneoftheUKsleadingrecyclingandwastemanagementcompanieswouldhostacryogensetalongsidealand-ll-gaspowergenerationplantinCanterbury.Bothprojectshavebeenproposedunderanenergystoragedemonstra-tioncompetitionbeingrunbytheDe-partmentofEnergyandClimateandChangeDECC.ThetwoprojectsarealreadyonashortlistofprojectsthatwillreceivesomefundingfromDECCtoallowdetaileddesignworktobecompleted.Fullfundingwhichwouldcover100percentofthewinningprojectscostisex-pectedtobeawardedtowardstheendofthismonthJune.CommentingontheNationalGridprojectGarethBrettCEOHighviewsaystherearetwomainreasonswhytheirtechnologytswellwithNa-tionalGridsGrainfacility.Anadvantageofoursystemisthatwecanusewastethermalstreamsateitherendoftheprocesswecanusewastecoldatthefrontendoftheprocesswhenweareliquefyingtheairandwecanusewasteheatattheback-endoftheprocesswhenweareboilingtheliquidairreadyforexpansionintheturbine.AtGrainwehaveaccesstoheatandcold.WhentheLNGisbeingevaporatedfromlessthan-160Cbacktoambi-enttemperaturetheresalotofex-cesswastecoldthatwecanuseinaliquidairrefrigerationprocess.Thisreducestheamountofpowerweneedtorefrigeratetheairintherstplacewhichenhancestheoverallefciencyofthesystemhesaid.Grainalsohasalargeelectricalde-mandthatuctuates.NationalGridcannotwaituntilthepriceofelectric-ityislowtounloadtankersastheycomein.Byhavingelectricitystor-ageonsitewecanmanipulatetheiroverallelectricitydemandcurvetohelpsavethemmoneyinoperatingtheterminaladdedBrett.HighviewwillinstallthreemaincomponentsatGrainaliqueerwhichpredominantlycomprisescom-pressorsandheatexchangerslargetankstostoretheliquidairandtogettheenergybackheatexchangerstoevaporatetheliquidairandapowerturbinethatexpandsthegaseouscompressedairtodriveagenerator.Theturbineisnotthetraditionalin-dustrialoraeroderivativegasturbinethatiscommonlyusedinthepowerindustry.Itisaprocessgasexpander-typeturbinewithnocombustororcompressor.Thesesimplemachineswhichrunongasesatambienttem-peraturearewidelyusedinthechemicalprocessindustryforcaptur-ingenergyfromcompressedgasstreams.Atanestimatedinstalledcostofaround3000kWtheenergystoragesystemwouldhaveapoweroutputofaround5-6MWdependingonthe-nalchoiceofpowerturbine.High-viewsaysthisshouldgiveitaroundvehoursofoperationabout25-30MWhfrom300tofliquidairmak-ingitthelargestdemonstrationofnewenergystoragetechnologyintheUK.AfterconsideringparasiticloadsHighviewexpectsthesystemwillhaveanoverallelectricalefciencyof50-60percent.Fixedoperatingcostsareexpectedtobesimilartothecostofhavinganopencyclegasturbineonstandbyreadytorun.Ac-cordingtoBrettthisisintheregionofthelowteensperkilowattyear.HeaddedThatsthexedopexbutthemainopexwillbethecostofelectricityneededtochargethesys-temup.Abigplusforthetechnologyisitsscalability.AccordingtoBrettitistotallycapableofbeingscaledup.Thesupplychainasitstandstodaycoulddelivera100MW1000MWhsystemwithoutanyproblemhesaid.BrettaddedOneofthehugead-vantagesofthissystemisthatitgetsyoupumpedhydrocapability30milesfromLondon.Oneofthebigdriversisthatitcanbelocatedwherethedemandisratherthanwherethegeographytellsyoutoputit.HighviewalsohopestodemonstratethesystemspurepowergenerationcapabilitiesthroughtheprojectforViridor.Thisinstallationwouldusewasteheatfromanexistingrecipro-catingenginethatrunsonlandllgastoboostthegeneratingcapacityofthesitefrom7MWeto12MWe.UnlikeGrainthisinstallationwillnothavetheliqueeronsiteHigh-viewwillsupplytanksofliquidni-trogeninsteadofliquefyingair.Thetankswillbelledwithliquidnitro-gendeliveredbytankerfromabigindustrialgascompany.Highviewwillalsoinstalla5MWapprox.processgasexpanderpowerturbineforutilisingheatfromthelandllgasengineexhaust.IfthisandtheGrainenergystorageprojectaresuccessfulintheDECCcompetitionHighviewwillorderthelonglead-timecomponentssuchasthepowerturbineandexpectstheprojectstobecompletedinearly2015.AlthoughtheincreasingneedtomanagerenewablesintegrationintothegridwilldrivethetechnologytherightregulatoryframeworkhastobeputinplaceifstoragetechnologiesaretoberolledoutquicklyintheUKandincountrieslikeGermanywheretheneedismorepressing.DuringtheconferencelaunchingtheCLCFreportTimEvisonSeniorVicePresidentofGermanindustrialcompanyMesserGroupGmbHsaidTheGermanmarketdoesnotpro-videadequatecommercialratesforstorageservicesandsothereneedstobesomesupport.Thereisconsider-ableinterestinsupportingthedevel-opmentofenergystorageandthistechnologyisaninterestingalterna-tivetopumpedhydroandcom-pressedairenergystorage.BrettthesystemprovidespumpedstoragehydrocapabilitywherethedemandisHighviews300kWpilotplantinSloughUK LiquidAirMediaCoverage20121330May2013TelegraphLiquidAirthefutureofmotoringPage1HOMENEWSWORLDSPORTFINANCECOMMENTBLOGSCULTURETRAVELLIFEFAWomenMotoringHealthPropertyGardeningFoodHistoryRelationshipsExpNewsCarReviewsManufacturersFestivalofMotoringGoodwoodTopGearAlexeiHOMEMOTORINGGREENMOTORINGByAndrewEnglish1242PMBST31May20135CommentsEngineerscallitdisruptivetechnologybutLiquidAirismuchmorethanthat.Usingcryogenicatmosphericairatminus196degreesCentrigradeasanenergystorepotentiallyinvertsourideaofthepistonengineandsubvertstheplansofrivalenergystorageschemeswhichpromotehydrogenordiscardedautomobilebatteries.Cryogenicairisknowntechnologyofcourse.Nitrogenwhichforms78percentofatmosphericairwasfirstliquefiedin1883throughaprocessofrepeatedcompressionexpansionandheatextraction.TheLiquidAirCompanyofBostonMassachusettsproducedthefirstcryogenicliquidpoweredcar.Formedin1899andinreceivershipjustthreeyearslaterthecompanywasashort-livedaffairbutthecardidrunandwasdemonstratedbyitsinventorHansKnudsenin1902.Apparentlyitdrovesome40milesat12mphon15gallonsofliquidair.ShareFacebookTwitterEmailLinkedInMotoringMotoringNewsScienceAndrewEnglishGreenMotoringInMotoringLiquidAirthefutureofmotoringLiquidAircouldbebeafuelforthefuturesaysAndrewEnglish.Thelow-energydensityofliquid-airstoragemeansthatitcouldrivalelectricbatterypowersaysAndrewEnglish5021290ProfessorofAppliedThermodynamicsatLoughboroughUniversitytheycandothingswiththat.RelatedArticlesHowtosavemoneyonfuel15May201310mosteconomicalcarsof201320Mar2013Whyelectriccarscouldbesoldlikephones13May2013BMWi3theinsidestory25Apr2013Top10electricandhybridcars23Apr2013DrivenSmartForTwoElectric18Apr2013PeterDearmananinventorandengineerwasfascinatedbytheideaofrunninganengineonliquidair.HecouldseethepotentialwhenheleftschoolintheSixtiesbuttheproblemwasthebulkandinefficiencyofcryogenicliquid-fuelledengineswhichusedheatexchangerstogasifytheliquidnitrogenorair-bothformsarelargelyinterchangeablebuttheformerismainlyusedinresearchenginesasitischeapandreadilyavailable.ItwasareportfromWashingtonStateUniversitywhichconcludedthatsuchcoldenginescouldonlyattainreasonableefficienciesiftheliquidairexpandedataconstanttemperatureisothermicallythatsparkedDearmanseurekamoment.Hehitupontheideaofinjectingtheliquidairontoathermaltransfermediumorthermalliquidtypicallyglycolanti-freezewhichwouldbeatambienttemperature.Themixingofthesetwofluidswiththeirwildlydifferenttemperaturescausestheliquidnitrogentoboilrapidlyandexpandinthechamberanddriveapistoninatwo-strokecyclealthoughthereisnotcompressionstrokeintheDearmanengine.AtthebottomofthepistonsstroketheexhaustportisexposedandinDearmansoverheadcamshaftresearchengineanexhaustvalveatthetopoftheengineopensandtherisingpistonpushesthethermalfluidandairoutoftheengine.PeterDearmanCertainlytheideahaspotential.Justonelitreofviscousbluecryogenicliquidairstoredinavacuumflaskistheequivalentof700litresofatmosphericair.Onreleasetheliquidquicklyboilsexpandsby700percentandreturnsharmlesslybacktotheatmosphere.ItsthatexpansionthatcanbeusedtodriveturbinesorpistonenginessuchastheDearmanEngine.EngineerslikethatexpansionsaysColinGarnerThree-wheelersgrouptestTriumphStreetTriplereviewInGreenMotoringThebestgreencarsonsaleIknewthatifyoucouldexpandtheliquidairisothermallyitwouldbecomparableinefficiencytootherenergysourcessaidDearman.AndIknewthatifIcouldbuildanenginethatusedthisprincipleIdbeabletosaythatsthebitIcando.Thethermalliquidisrecoveredandreusedafterrunningthrougharadiatorwhichbringsitbackuptoambienttemperaturebutifyoucanscavengelow-levelheatfromthevehicleoritscabinyoucanraisethetemperatureofthethermalfluidtoincreasetheefficiencyoftheexpansionprocess.Aconventionalinternalcombustionenginelosesathirdofitspotentialpowerthroughheatingthecoolantandanother35percenttotheexhaustgases.TheDearmanengineisabletoscavengelargeamountsofthislow-levelwasteheatwhichbringsthepotentialofhybridapplicationswithconventionalengines.ThereisalsothepossibilityofusingtheDearmanengineinhybridapplicationsinbusesscavengingthecabinheatfrompassengersorinrefrigeratedvehicleswheretheenergyfromthehotfoodcoolinginthebackcanhelpdrivethevehicle.Machinesworkinginmineswheregettingridofheatisaproblemarealsoapotentialmarket.RicardotheSussex-basedengineeringconsultancyhasbeenworkingontheDearmanconceptforalmosttwoyearsandisexploringthepossibilitiesfortheunitwhichincludeshybridisingitsownsplit-cycleenginewhichsplitstheintakecompressionstrokesandpowerexhauststrokesofafour-strokeenginebetweenseparatecylinders.DrAndrewAtkinsRicardoschieftechnologyengineersaystheDearmanengineisalsohighlysuitableforusewiththeAtkinsonorMillercyclestoimproveefficiency.AndColinGarnerevenpositsfutureexamplesoftheDearmanenginewhichcouldbebuiltoflow-costplasticsoralloyswhichwouldgivesignificantpriceadvantagescomparedwithcomplexbatteries.Suchadrivetrainwouldalsohavesignificantend-of-liferecyclingadvantagescomparedwithbatteries.InaconferenceonthepotentialofLiquidAironMay9atTheRoyalAcademyofEngineeringtherewerepapersonthepracticalityandtheoreticaleconomicsoftheproject. LiquidAirMediaCoverage20121330May2013TelegraphLiquidAirthefutureofmotoringPage2Liquidairisnotproducedcommerciallybutthereisasurplusofliquidnitrogenestimatedat8500tonnesperdayTPDwhichisventedtotheatmosphere.Thatcouldpotentiallyfueltheequivalentof6.5millioncarkilometresadayin2012accordingtotheDepartmentforTransportStatisticsallcarsandtaxisintheUKdid1.0589billionkilometresperdayandallmotorvehicles1.3342billionkmperday.Usingcurrentelectricitypricesliquidaircouldbeproducedatacostof2.5to3.6penceperlitrewiththepotentialtofurtherreducecostsandincreaseefficiencybyco-locatingproductionwithLiquefiedNaturalGasLNGterminals.Deliveredcostbyroadtankerwouldberoughlydoublethatprice.Thelow-energydensityofliquid-airstoragemeansitisunlikelytochallengetherangeandubiquityoftheinternalcombustionICEenginebutitcouldrivalthebatteryelectriccarparticularlybecauseitsrefuellingspeedsarecomparablewithpetrolordieselvehicleandthewell-to-wheelscarbondioxideemissionsareestimatedatabout30gkm.Whatsmorethetechnologycouldalsobeusedbyelectricitygeneratorstostoretherenewableenergyfromwindsolarhydroandtidalpowerwhichtendstobegeneratedatatimewhenthegriddoesntnecessarilyneedit.Andwhiletherearemanyalternativeenergycompaniesjealouslyeyingupthissurplusenergyliquidairhastheadvantageofbeingsimpleknowntechnologycomparativeoncostandasoneengineerputityoucanmenditwithahammer.TheenergystorageisnotasgoodasadvancedbatteriessaysColinGarnerbutitsprettygood.ThepromotersofthefuelDearmananditssistercompanyHighviewPowerStoragealreadyhaveapilotstorageplantoperatinginSloughandareworkingonefficiencyimprovementsusingscavengedlow-levelpowerstationheat.Therearestillproblemstoovercomewithcryogenicenergystoragenottheleastofwhichisatendencytoover-hypeit.Poorenergydensityandcomplexthermodynamicsmightholditbackasmighttheexistingworkdoneonexistingpurebatteryorhybridvehicles.Frostformationandtheperformanceoflubricantsatlowtemperaturesmightalsobedrawbacksaswillevaporativeboil-offfromthetanksofcryogenicliquid.Inthecaseofliquidairthiscanbefractionatedsoyoucanendupwithatankofoxygenratherthanpureair.ThatsaknownissueandsomethingtheindustryisusedtodealingwithsaysAtkins.SowhilewearealongwayfromtheideaofanitrogeneconomyandyouareunlikelytobefillingupwithatankofcoldanytimesoonliquidairandtheDearmanenginedohavesomeinterestingpotentialapplications.WerehopingtodrivePeterDearmanscold-poweredcarlaterthisyear. LiquidAirMediaCoverage20121320May2013MITTechnologyReviewLiqueedAirCouldPowerCarsandStoreEnergyfromSunandWind-Page1NEWSANALYSISFEATURESVIEWSMULTIMEDIADISCUSSIONSTOPICSPOPULARMOBILEMETADATAREINVENTINGCHOCOLATEHOWTECHNOLOGYISDESTROYINGJOBSENERGYNEWS129COMMENTSLiquefiedAirCouldPowerCarsandStoreEnergyfromSunandWindA19th-centuryideamightleadtocleanercarslarger-scalerenewableenergy.ByKevinBullisonMay202013ColdstorageThetankattherightholdsairchilledtoextremelylowtemperaturesatwhichitsaliquidratherthanagas.Whenitsallowedtowarmupitexpandsandcandriveasteamturbineinthecontainerontheleft.Someengineersaredustingoffanoldideaforstoringenergyusingelectricitytoliquefyairbycoolingitdowntonearly200Cbelowzero.Whenpowerisneededtheliquefiedairisallowedtowarmupandexpandtodriveasteamturbineandgenerator.Theconceptisbeingevaluatedbyahandfulofcompaniesthatproduceliquefiednitrogenasawaytostoreenergyfromintermittentrenewableenergysources.Liquefiedairmightalsobeusedtodrivepistonsintheenginesoflow-emissionvehicles.OnecompanyHighviewPowerStorageofLondonhasraised18millionandbuiltapilotplantthatwilluseliquidairtostorepowerfromthegrid.HighviewhasteamedupwithMesserthelargeindustrialgascompanytohelpdevelopthetechnology.IfallgoeswelltheU.K.governmentmayfundthedevelopmentofalargerplantthatcouldestablishitscommercialviability.MeanwhiletheengineeringconsultancyRicardoisdevelopingtwotypesofenginesthatcoulduseliquidnitrogenbasedontechnologyfromaHighviewPowerspinoffcalledDearmanEngine.Storageforthepowergridisbecomingmoreimportantasuseofrenewableenergyincreases.Intheneartermnatural-gaspowerplantsandfast-respondingstoragetechnologiessuchasbatteriescankeepthegridstableseeWindTurbinesBatteryIncludedCanKeepPowerSuppliesStable.Butifrenewablesaretoreachaverylargescaleorifwewanttoreducetheuseoffossil-fuelbackuppowerplantstechnologiesthatcanstorehoursordaysworthofpowerwillbeneeded.Inthiseffortcostiskey.WhenwerelookingatenergystoragemechanismsWHYITMATTERSCurrentenergystorageoptionsaretooexpensiveformanyapplications. LiquidAirMediaCoverage20121320May2013MITTechnologyReviewLiqueedAirCouldPowerCarsandStoreEnergyfromSunandWind-Page2werelookingforsomethingthatsbasedonextremelylow-costmaterialsandverysimpleprocesseswecandoinbulksaysHareshKamathprogrammanagerforenergystorageattheElectricPowerResearchInstitute.Andthiscertainlyfitsthebill.Theideadatesbacktothe1890swhenaninventornamedCharlesTriplerdeclaredthatheddevelopedaverylow-costwaytocooldownairuntilitbecamealiquid.Healsoshowedthattheliquefiedaircouldbeusedtorunasteamengine.Triplerreceivedagreatdealofpressattentionatthetimeandwasabletoraisealargeamountofmoneytobringthetechnologytomarket.Iteventuallybecameclearhoweverespeciallyafterinvestorslosttheirshirtsthathedexaggeratedthebenefitsofhisapproach.Sincethentheprocessofliquefyingairhasbeenmademuchmoreefficientandtheneedfornewenergystorageoptionshascompelledasecondlook.HighviewPowersprocessis50to60percentefficienttheliquidaircanyieldjustoverhalfasmuchelectricityasittakestomakeit.Batteriesbycontrastcanbemorethan90percentefficient.ButthenewprocesscanmakeupforitsinefficiencybyusingwasteheatfromotherprocessesseeAuditoMakeFuelUsingSolarPower.Highviewhasdemonstratedthatlow-temperaturewasteheatfrompowerplantsorevendatacenterscanbeusedtohelpwarmuptheliquefiedair.Thesystemcanalsolastfordecadeswhilebatteriestypicallyneedtobereplacedeveryfewyears.Thislongevitycouldhelpreduceoverallcosts.SeveralcompaniesaredevelopingwaystoimprovetheefficiencyofcompressingairwhichcouldalsomaketheliquefactionprocessmoreefficientseeLightSailEnergySnags37MinFundingandCompressed-AirSystemCouldAidWindPower.Liquefiedairisaboutfourtimesmoreenergy-densethancompressedairandstoringitatalargescaletakesuplessspace.Liquidairmightalsoproveusefulincarsandtrucks.AninventornamedPeterDearmanhasmadeacompactsystemthatinsteadofrelyingonlargeheatexchangersusesantifreezeinjectedintoanenginescombustionchambertorecycleheatthatwouldotherwisebewasted.Hebuiltaramshackleprototypeandshowedthatitcouldpoweracar.Ricardoisworkingonaversionthatcouldeventuallybecommercialized.Liquidairstoresenergyataboutthedensityofnickelmetalhydridebatteriesandsomelithium-ionbatteriesthekindusedinhybridandelectriccarsnow.ButithasakeyadvantageitcanbepouredintoafueltankfarfasterthanabatterycanberechargedsaysAndrewAtkinsaseniortechnologistatRicardo.Theenginewouldrunonliquidnitrogenbasicallyliquidairwiththeoxygenremovedandwouldemitonlynitrogen.Thecarbonemissionsassociatedwiththeenginewoulddependonthepowersourceusedtoliquefythenitrogen.Ricardoisalsodevelopingadieselenginethatsaugmentedwithliquidnitrogentoimproveitsefficiencybyabout50percent. LiquidAirMediaCoverage20121310May2013SkyNewsProfessorRichardWilliamsdiscussesthepotentialofLiquidAirEnergy LiquidAirMediaCoverage2012139May2013TheEngineerFirstcommercialliquidairplantamongUKcompetitionwinnersPrintEmailShareComments1SaveFirstcommercialliquidairplantamongUKcompetitionwinners9May2013ByStephenHarrisConstructionofBritainsfirstcommercial-scaleliquidairenergystorageplantcouldbeginthisyearafterthegovernmentrevealedthewinnersofitsnewtechnologycompetition.Theannouncementthattwoliquidair-basedfacilitiesareamongthe12projectstoshare500000forfeasibilitystudiesintoarangeofenergystoragesystemscomesasanewreportarguescryogenictechnologycouldcreatea1bnindustryand22000jobsintheUK.Otherconceptsthroughtothefirstroundofthecompetitionincludestoringenergyatagridlevelusingflywheelscompressedairmethaneproductionvariousindustrialanddomestic-scalebatteriesandasystemthattransportsbucketsofgravelupahill.EnergystorageisseenasavitalaspectofplanstoreducecarbonemissionsbymakingrenewableenergygenerationmorepracticalforHomeEnergyEnvironmentNewsSectorsAerospaceAutomotiveCivilStructuralElectronicsEnergyEnvironmentMedicalHealthcareMilitaryDefenceRailMarineChannelsSkillsCareersPolicyBusinessDesignEngineeringProductionEngineeringEventsSupplementsDigitalEditionPreviousIssuesProductAreasAutomationMeasurementInspectionDrivesControlsSoftwareCADCAMPrototypingModellingFastenersAdhesivesMaintenanceMachineVisionSensorsHomeNewsIn-DepthVideoOpinionBlogForumsArchiveexamplestoringexcesselectricitycreatedwhenthewindisblowingforuseatpeaktimeswhenitisnt.ButapartfromasmallamountofpumpedhydrostoragetheUKhasyettorolloutenergystorageatagridlevelandthecompetitionisseenasawayofencouragingthedevelopmentofarangeoftechnologiestomeetthisneed.HighviewPowerStoragehasdevelopedatechnologyforusingelectricitytoliquefyairthatcanlaterbeevaporatedtodriveturbinegeneratorsandhasbeenoperatingapilotplantinSloughsinceMarch2011.Thefirmhasnowputforwardproposalsfortwoplantsthathavewoncompetitionfundingincludingitsfirstcommercial-scalefacilitystoringenergyfromtheNationalGridwhenitisneededonwhichconstructioncouldstartasearlyasJulyiftheplantgetsthroughtothenextstageofthecompetition.TheplantwouldbehostedatNationalGridsGrainLiquefiedNaturalGasLNGimportterminalontheIsleofGraininKentwherethehotandcoldenergywastestreamsproducedbygasliquefactioncouldbeusedtomaketheenergystorageprocessmoreefficient.PhysicallyitsnotmuchbiggerthantheSloughplantbutthecapacityoftheprocessisabout10timesbiggerHighviewCEOGarethBretttoldTheEngineer.Wellbeabletogeneratearound5MWofelectricityandrunforaroundsixhours.Headdedthatitwashardtosayexactlyhowmuchthewastestreamswouldimprovetheefficiencyoftheprocessbutthatthecompanyexpectedoverallefficiencyoftheplanttobearound50to60percentenoughtomakethefacilitycommerciallyviable.Thefinalcostoftheplanthasyettobedetermined.Itsasignificantimprovement.Generallywewouldntexpecttogetthatsortofefficiencyuntilwewereatreallyquitealargesystem20MWthatkindofthing.Highviewssecondcompetition-fundedstudyisforaCryoGensetsystematalandfillgasgenerationplantinCanterburythatactslikeadieselgeneratorbutfuelledbyliquidairbroughtinbytruckfromaseparateliquefactionsitewithefficiencyimprovedbythegasplantswasteheat.AreportpublishedtodaybytheCentreforLowCarbonFuturesrunbyaconsortiumofBritishuniversitiesfound15GWofliquidairenergystoragecouldreducegridemissionsatpeaktimesbyupto4.5percentwhile30GWwouldcutthembyupto20percent.ItarguesthattheUKhasamanufacturingcapabilitythatiswellsuitedtoproducingliquidairsystemsandgreateruseofthetechnologycouldgenerate1bnperyearfortheUKeconomyby2050andsupport20000jobs.TheDepartmentofEnergyandClimateChangeDECCplanstoinvitesomeoftheenergystoragecompetitionwinnerstotakepartinthedemonstrationphaselaterthisyearandshareinafurther17mavailablefortestingtechnologydesigns.Aswellasrevealingthe12phaseonecompetitionwinnersthegovernmenthasalsoannouncedthefourrecipientsofatotal1.5mforimprovingcomponentsormaterialsusedforenergystoragesystemsandforexploringhowstoragesystemscanbeusedintheUKelectricitynetwork.Afurther30projectshavebeenawardedashareofupto16munderthefirstphaseoftheEnergyEntrepreneursFundtosupportvariouscleantechstartupcompaniesandanother15groupswillshare3mforfeasibilitystudiesanddemonstratorprojectstohelpdevelopdomesticheatstoragetechnologies. LiquidAirMediaCoverage2012139May2013EngineeringandTechnologyMagazineLiquidairenergystoragecouldbecome1bnindustry-Page1EngineeringandTechnologyMagazineSearchETYouarehereHomeNews9May2013ByEddGentShareLiquidairenergystoragecouldbecome1bnindustryLatestIssueSummerisonthewaysoweturnHOMEMAGAZINENEWSBLOGSVIDEOSTECHNICALEXPLORERelatednewsSavetoPDFPrintpageWilliamstodesignbatteriesforFormulaEfleet10mcollaborationtoadvancevirtualsimulationLiquidairenergystoragetechnologycouldunlocka1bnindustryand22000UKjobsaccordingtoanewreport.ThereportfrombusinessandacademicexpertsandpublishedbytheCentreforLowCarbonFuturesCLCFfoundthattheuseofliquidairforgrid-basedenergystoragecouldincreaseUKenergysecuritycutgreenhousegasemissionsandcreateanewindustryworthatleast1bnayearand22000obstotheUK.Aircanbeturnedintoaliquidbycoolingittoaround-196CusingstandardindustrialequipmentandkeptinanunpressurisedinsulatedvesselasameansofstoringthevariableenergyproducedbysomerenewableenergyFindETonfewleisurelypursuits-andsomenot-soleisurelyones...NewsMostviewedFromforumsFinalcallforIETscholarshipapplicationsBreakthroughdeviceforholographicvideoPhone-glovesprojectupcyclesdiscardedmobilesEUshouldbestricteroncarbonHighviewspilotliquidairplanthostedatScottishandSouthernEnergys80MWBiomassplantontheSloughtradingestate-30-tonnediggerdeliveredtoArmyTopUSengineerheldinChinafreedaheadofsummitSpeedsterconceptforAstonMartincentenaryBrowsenewssources.Whentheenergyisneededagainheatcanbeappliedtoboiltheliquidairturningitbackintoagasthatcanbeusedtodriveapistonengineorturbine.ThereportlaunchedataconferenceattheRoyalAcademyofEngineeringtodayhighlightstheopportunityforanation-widenetworkofLiquidAirenergystorageplantsthatarechargedbysurplusenergyatnightfeedingtheenergybackintothesystemwhenitisneededmostduringtheday.ProfessorRichardWilliamspro-vicechancelloroftheUniversityofBirminghamwholedthereportsaysSolvingBritainsenergycrisisrequiresbetterwaystostorethepowerofthewindandthesunatlargescalewithoutrelyingonscarcenaturalresourcesandliquidairprovidesamissingpieceofthatpuzzle.Accordingtothereportasinglegasometer-styletankofliquidaircouldmakegoodthelossof5GWofwindpowerforthreehoursequivalenttoalmost10percentoftheUKspeakelectricityneedsandhelptoprotectBritishhomesfromblack-outs.Smallersystemscouldalsobeusedtoprovidezero-emissionback-upandreserveservicesforsurplusenergytoreplacedieselgensets.PlayvideoMoreETvideosBi-facialsolar-panelconceptintroducedfordesertregionsETvideosTrackingcargoacrosstheglobe LiquidAirMediaCoverage2012139May2013EngineeringandTechnologyMagazineLiquidairenergystoragecouldbecome1bnindustry-Page2WilliamsaddsWehaveanopportunityandgrowingneedtoscaleupourinvestmentintechnologiesthatwillensuretheenergyfromrenewablesisnotwastedandtheopportunitiesfortheUKindustrialsectorarenotlost.TheGovernmentisinvestingtogiveacademicandbusinesscommunitiesthechancetoleadtheworldanddevelopnewtechnologiesandindustriesthatcanbenefittheUK.LiquidairshouldbepartofthateffortastheCLCFreportpublishedtodayshowsitisaprimeexampleofatechnologythathasthepotentialtodeliveramoreefficientenergysystemandbringthebenefitsofgreengrowthtotheUK.Throughourreportthisconferencetodayweinvitepolicymakerstheresearchcommunityandprivatesectortoconsiderourrecommendationsjoinintheevidencegatheringanddebateandbuildontheworkalreadyunderway.Liquidairtechnologiescouldalsosignificantlyincreasetheefficiencyofroadvehiclesaccordingtothereportreducingdieselconsumptioninbusesorfreightvehiclesby25percentbyusingaliquidairanddieselhybridengineandcuttingemissionsfromrefrigerationonfoodlorriesby80percent.ETjobsCommunicationEngineerSaudiAramco-SaudiArabiaObsolesenceManagementEngineerRolls-Royceplc-DerbyDerbyshireUnitedKingdomElectricalEngineersGlasgowScottishPower-GlasgowUnitedKingdomCommunicationEngineerSaudiAramco-UnitedKingdomSpectrumAssignmentandCoordinationEngineerShareAndthereportalsoraisesthepossibilityofzero-emissionliquidaircitycarsfillingupatroad-sideforecourtsatafractionofcurrentfuelcostsandwithlowerlifecyclevehicleemissionsthaneitherelectricorhydrogenpoweredvehicles.RespondingtothereportMinisterforUniversitiesandScienceDavidWillettssaidEnergystoragehasthepotentialtobringsignificanteconomicbenefitstotheUKbutwemustgetbetterattakingourresearchthroughtocommercialsuccess.Thisiswhywehaveinvested30mtocreatededicatedresearchfacilitiestodevelopandtestnewtechnologies.Thiswilldrivegrowthandputouruniversitiesandbusinessesattheforefrontofinnovation. LiquidAirMediaCoverage201213AprilEdition2013ATSEFocusIsliquidairthemissinglinkinenergystoragePage137focusApril13www.at..aenergyIhaveneverquitegottothebottomowhygreatervalueisnotplacedonthelatentenergyassetsthatAustraliahasinitssolarandnuclearresources.Australiaisnotaloneincomingtoexperiencethatthereisavitalmissinglinktheinabilitytostoreenergythatkeepsadividebetweentheaspirationsobeingabletouserenewableresourcesandthepracticalitiesorenewablesuseinutureenergygenerationandsupplysystems.Teconceptoelectricalandthermalstorageismentionedinthe2012EnergyWhitePaper2012howeveritissomewhatsurprisingthattheissueisnothighlightedasanareaneedingstrategicinterventionalongsidethedemandandsupplymanagementmeasures.Withrenewablesourcesenergyisoencreatedinthewrongplaceatthewrongtimeanditbecomesdiculttoutiliseit.Exampleswouldbewindwaveandsolarenergy.AkeyquestioniswhatByRichardWilliamsr.a.williamsbham.ac.ukIsliquidairthemissinglinkinenergystoragetheroleoheelecriciydisribuionneworkandisfexibiliyisanessenialcomponeninhedeliveryandoverallcosandviabiliyoanysoragescheme.technologiesareavailabletocapturetheenergyinaormthatcanbeusedandtodothisinahighlycost-ecientmannerIntheUKeortshavebeenmadetoraisegovernmentsunderstandingowherethevalueoelectricalandthermalenergystoragemaylieinamarketplacethatisderegulatedwithseparatebodiesorgenerationtransmissionanddistribution.TesituationinAustraliahassomeresemblancetotheextentthatAustralianClimateChangelegislationisdrivingde-carbonisationandthiswillshitheenergyprovisionandcreatenewmarkets.Tepublicmindhoweverisoncostenergypovertyaccessibilityandsecurityosupply.HowevertheopportunitiesintheUKandAustraliaareverydierentjustastheenergygenerationmixisverydierent.InNovembertheUKChancellorannouncedthatenergystoragetechnologywasindeedcriticaltotheutureUKeconomyandvaluedat10billionayearby2050.Tisvaluecomesromunderstandingwherethedierentenergystoragetechnologiestintothegridatgenerationtransmissionanddistributionsegments.Itsnotsimplyamatteroprovidingstoragecapacitybutseeinghowarobustsystemcanbeconguredtosuitthechangingenergymixandsominimisethecostotransmissioninvestmentasthedemandorelectricalpowergrowsduetoelectrication.UKMinistershavesubsequentlyemphasisedtheneedorenergystorageresearch.SowhatmightenergystoragemeanorAustraliaorperhapsrstwhatitdoesntmean.Inmyviewitcertainlyshouldnotmeanllingthecountrywithbatteriesorstoringrenewableenergy.Batteriesarevastlyresource-intensiveanddemandre-useinwaysthatbusinessmodelshavenotbeenableyettoaccommodate.WhiletherehavebeensomeextensivebatteryparktrialsorregionalstorageinChinatheUSandotherenergyconstrainedcountriesorexampleChilethisdoesnotappeartobeawidespreadoptionsuitedorAustralia.Arangeoenergystoragemethodsiscurrentlyavailableandmostothesehavebeenreviewedrecently.Figure1showsasummarybaseduponthescaleopowerratingandthecall-downtimeexpressedhereasadischargetimeatratedpower.Clearlydierentapplicationsdemandappropriatestoragecharacteristicsandarangeotechnologiesareneededtosuitthespecicneeds.echnologicallyspeakingenergycanbestoredinmechanicalelectricalorchemicaldevicesandintheormoheat.Allareprobablyneededbutotherthanhydro-storagedamstherehavebeenewexamplesatasignicantscale.TeneedorfexibilityinsupplymeansthatitislikelythatseveraldierenttypesostoragemaybeneededsincesomecanbeswitchedFigure1EnergystoragemethodsKeyTypesofstorageBulkpowermanagementReserveresponseservicesDischargetimeatratedpowerSystempowerratingsmodulesizeSeconds1kW10kW100kW1MW10MW100MW1GWMinutesHoursTransmissionanddistributiongridsupportHydrogen-relatedMechanicalElectrochemicalElectricalThermalPumpedhydropowerstorageCompressedairenergystorageFlowbatteriesSodium-sulphurbatteryHydrogenfuelcellsHigh-energysupercapcitorsHigh-powersupercapacitorsSuperconductingmagneticenrgystorageCryogenicenergystorageAdvancedlead-acidbatteryLi-ionbatteryFlywheelsLead-acidbatteryNickelcadmiumbatteryNickelmetalhydridebattery LiquidAirMediaCoverage201213AprilEdition2013ATSEFocusIsliquidairthemissinglinkinenergystoragePage238April13ocus.a..aenergyonquicklybatterieswhereasothersrequireaewminutesbeoreprovidinganenergysupplyheathydroelectric.Teplaceodeploymentodierenttechnologiesislikelytobeatcityregionhomeandpersonaldomesticdevicelevel.Verylarge-scalestoragecapacityislikelytobeassociatedwithindustrialoperationsoratpointsogenerationanddistribution.Teroleotheelectricitydistributionnetworkanditsexibilityisanessentialcomponentinthedeliveryandoverallcostandviabilityoanystoragescheme.Clearlythepointodeploymentaectsthegriddemandandmethodsthroughwhichitmaybecontrolled.Conventionalbatteriesodierenttypeshavetheirplacebutthesocietalneedispressingstronglyoranalternativetobatteries.Tisisnotonlydrivenbyrealisationothecostresourcewasteulnessenvironmentalimpactandscarcityassociatedwithrareearthcomponentsbutalsoagrowingpublicmisgivingaboutsaety.Tenumberobattery-relatedsaetyincidentshasbeengrowingrapidlyoverthepastewyearsrelatingtovehicularandairtransportationcomputerslarge-scalebatteryparksandwindsolaron-sitestoragelocations.Terearealternatives.ForexampleintheUKthereisagrowinginterestinthenotionocryogenicliquids.Tesearereportedtobeatalowercostpointandmorelikelytobesuitablewheresolarenergycanbeusedtodrivecompressorstocompressairtoliquidairascryogenicuids.Liquidairispotentiallyanenergyvectorinitselandvaporisationotheliquidusinglow-gradewasteheatmakesoraveryecientsystemthatthendrivesagenerator.Teround-tripeciencyothesesystemsrivalsbatteries.Tesehavenowbeendemonstratedatasmallscalewith350kW2.5MWhscaleoron-gridelectricalstorageandurtherdevelopmentstoscaleouttobeyond10MWunderway.Systemso100MWormorewithGWhsostoragearedeliverableusingexistingsupplychainsandcomponentsSomecomparisonsoestimatedcostsorcomparativestoragesystemshavebeenmootedable1.Suchsystemsoerameansorlow-costo-gridgenerationtosmoothpowerrequirementsasdemonstratedinarbitragebeneftsinUKandtoprovidesecurityosupplybycreatinganationalreserve.Liquidairisalsouseabledirectlyasauelandthefrstcarsthatrunonairarecurrentlybeingevaluatedandattractingsignifcantattention.TeconceptoliquidairasanenergyvectorisbasedontheactthatAustraliaastheUKhasanexistinginrastructuretosupportearlyadoption.Tetechnologyderivesrommaturesupplychaincomponentswithprovenlongliewhosecostsareknown.Liquidairstorageisatloworatmosphericpressureresultinginlow-costabove-groundsaebulktanks.Tereisnouelcombustionrisk.Terearenogeologicalgeographicalconstraintstolocationostoresordistributionpathways.Teenergydensityoliquidaircomparesavourablytootherlow-carboncompetitors.Finallythereisgreatsynergywithotherindustrialprocessesincludinguseowasteheatandprovisionocold.FurtherthereistheoptionousingliquidairasanenergyvectortotransportthisstoredenergyaroundbyroadasiscurrentlydoneorshipaswithLNG.AmajorreviewothisopportunityisunderwayandthismayhaveprooundapplicationinAustraliaiitturnsoutthatliquidaircanbeusedasauel.MeanwhiletheUKEnergyandClimateChangeMinisterJohncryogenion-gridenergytorage2.5mWdeontrationplantinsloghuk.Table1Comparativeenergystoragecostestimatestszamwcaakwcaakwegaaquavaap280-5302500-4300420-43076-85rqancAesaf180960-115060-12046-48rqavnnasba503100-3300520-55068nyba501450-1750290-35060nyhvces10-200900-1900260-53050-80nnd. LiquidAirMediaCoverage201213AprilEdition2013ATSEFocusIsliquidairthemissinglinkinenergystoragePage339focusApril13www.at..aenergyHayesbelievesthatliquidairmayoersomeradicalsolutionwithrealeconomicstimulustotheeconomy.Puttingavalueonenergystorageisdicult.Tevalueliesindierentplacesordierentapplications.Akeyreectioninapproachingthiswithregardtosolaristhatthebusinessmodelhasaeedstocksunthatisreeandthismeansthatargumentsbasedpurelyontechnicalprocesseciencyandcross-comparisonstootherprocessarenotgermane.Ratheritisthebeneftthatneedstobequantifed.Australiawillneedtograsptheseemergingconceptsasnewopportunitiesemergetobetterutiliserenewableenergyandmitigateescalatinginrastructurecostsassociatedwithenergysupplyandsecurity.Iamincreasinglyconfdentthatthede-carbonisationdriversmayopenupsignifcantneweconomicopportunitiesahead.TisarticleisbasedonProfessorWilliamspresentiontoanASEEnergyForummeetinginNovember2012.proFessorrichArdWilliAmsobeFregFtseaFgFwAaaAaytgasaeggauvybgaukaayauvynwsWa.ha-aryaAayeggacAaysgyaggay.haFwryaAayeggaavnsfsaalqAAawgg. LiquidAirMediaCoverage20121330January2013BloombergCanLiquidNitrogenBeUsedtoFuelCars LiquidAirMediaCoverage2012132January2013NewScientistIntothinairStoragesalvationforgreenenergy-Page1ExcessenergyfromthepowerstationisusedtopoweragiantfridgeImageJezCoulsonHighview1moreimageIfrenewableenergyistosucceedweneedtofindabetterwaytostoreit.LiquidairbatteriescouldbetheanswerEditorialTimetonailthenumberoneproblemofgreenenergyITHASbeenanunusuallycooldayintheflatlandsofwesternTexas.Aseveningrisesoverthesprawlingwindfarmthetemperaturecontinuestodropandwithitthewind.Farabovethebladeofatoweringturbineglidesslowlytoahalt.Afewhoursagotheseturbineswerechurningsufficientelectricityintothegridtorivaltwonuclearpowerplantsenoughtokeepthelightsonin5percentofTexas.Thestatespowermanagersknewadropwascomingbutthespeedhastakeneveryonebysurprise.Thetimingcouldnotbeworse.AllacrossthestatepeoplearecominghomefromworkflickingonlightsTVsandkettles.Thepowerauthoritydeclaresanemergency.Engineersrequest30megawattsofemergencypowerfromMexico.Supplytolargeindustrialusersiscutformorethananhour.Ittakesthreehoursbeforethesystemisfinallystabilised.Thisisntagooddayforrenewableenergyanditillustratesonereasonwhyevenmodesttargetsconsistentlygounmetallaroundtheworld.In2009intermittentrenewablesaccountedforapaltry3.3percentofworldenergygeneration.Windsunandwavearesimplytoofickletobecountedon.Butthatmaybeabouttochange-andsalvationcouldliterallycomeoutofthinair.Itsnotthatwedonthaveenoughenergysources.IndeedeveryminuteenoughsolarradiationhitsEarthtomeetglobalenergyneedsforayear.Windcouldalsosingle-handedlytakecareoftheentireworldsdemandsaccordingtoresearchpublishedlastyearatStanfordUniversityinCaliforniaPNASvol109p15679.Thereasonitdoesntisdowninparttothemismatchbetweenwhentheenergycanbeobtainedandwhenwecanuseit.Gridoperatorshavetouseback-uppowerstationswhichforcesupthecostofrenewables.Thatspartofthereasonwhylastyearrenewablesourcesaccountedforonly9.4percentoftheelectricitygeneratedintheUKand13percentofelectricityintheUS-wellshortofprevioustargetsseediagram.Itmightseemobviousthattheansweristostoretheextrapowerwhensupplyishighanddemandislowandtotapitwhentheoppositeistrue.Indeedtheconventionalpowerindustryhasdonethisfordecadesparticularlytosalvageextraenergyproducedbynuclearpowerstationswhicharetooexpensivetoshutdownwhendemanddips.Onemethodiscalledpumpedstorage.AttheDinorwigpowerstationintheUKforexamplewaterispumpedupintoareservoirontopoftheElidirFawrmountainduringperiodsoflowdemand.Whenenergydemandspikesthewaterisreleaseddownthemountaintodriveturbinesthatfeedtheelectricitygrid.Itsanextraordinaryengineeringachievementhousedin16kilometresoftunnelsthreadedthroughthemountainandcapableofsupplying1300megawattsin12seconds.Thatpowerspeedandefficiency-about80percent-iswhypumpedstorageaccountsfor99perMyNewScientistHomeIn-DepthArticlesBacktoarticleIntothinairStoragesalvationforgreenenergy02January2013byJimGilesMagazineissue2898.SubscribeandsaveForsimilarstoriesvisittheEnergyandFuelsandClimateChangeTopicGuidescentoftheworldsenergystoragecapacity.Ifeverywindandsolarfarmhaditsownmountainreservoiritmightbepossibletomakewindenergya247resource.AmbitiousdesignsInIrelandathinktankcalledSpiritofIrelandisworkingonjustsuchaprojecta3.6billionundertakingthatwouldusepumpedstoragetotakefulladvantageofthecountryscopioussupplyofintermittentwinds.Wrong-timeenergyfromitslargewindfarmswoulddriveseawatertoacliff-topreservoir.Butnoteverycountrycanrelyonpumpedstoragewhichcruciallydependsonexistinggeographicalfeatures-orawillingnesstoshoulderthecostofbuildingamountain.Sothesuccessofrenewableenergywilldependoneasierstoragemethods.Developingthesehoweverhasbeenfarfromstraightforward.Batteriesmightseemtheobviouschoicebutscalingthemupforgridstoragehasprovedtricky.TheLaurelmountainwindfarminWestVirginiauseslithiumbatterieshousedinshipping-container-sizedstructurestomopupunwantedelectricityduringlowdemandandsend32megawattsbackintothegridathighdemand.Theyarehighlyefficientandhaveasmallfootprint.Buttheyhavedrawbacks.Notonlydotheyuseexoticmaterialssuchasrareearthelementsbutlithiumbatterystorageisatleast10timesasexpensiveaspumpedstorageoverthelietimeoaplantaccordingtoa2010analysisbytheElectricPowerResearchInstituteinPaloAltoCalifornia.SomeplantshaveturnedtoairsuchasanaturalgasplantoperatedbyE.ONKraftwerkeinHuntorfGermany.Insteadofusingexcesselectricalenergytodrivewaterupahilltheyuseittocompressandstoreairinsaltcavernsabout500metresbelowground.Whentheyneedtheenergyoncemoretheyreleasetheairtodriveaturbine.Theproblemwiththismethodisitsefficiencywhichrarelyexceeds50percent.Pressurisingaircausesittoheatupwhichcarriesawayalotoftheoriginalenergy.Thentoexpandthecompressedairitmustbeheatedasecondtimeusingupevenmoreenergy.TheheatproblemisbeingaddressedinGermanywherea90-megawattdemonstrationplantisplannedtobeoperationalby2019.Butthatwontsolvetheproblemthatcompressedairstoragereliesonthepresenceoflimestonecavernsaquifersorsaltcaves.Howeverairmayyetholdthekeytoenergystorage-inliquidform.ForthepasttwoyearsonapatchoflandnotmuchbiggerthanabasketballcourtinSloughUKaliquidairpilotstorageplanthasbeenquietlygeneratingelectricityusingtheexcessenergyfromaneighbouringbiomassplant.Thistangleofgleamingwhitepipesandtankshasenoughadvantagesoverrivaltechnologiestohavebeenhailedasacriticalpartofourenergyfuture.ThiscouldsavetheUKbillionssaysTimFoxheadofenergyandenvironmentattheInstitutionofMechanicalEngineersinLondon.AirapparentTheplantcombinesexistingtechnologiesinanewway.Thepowerstationsexcessenergyisusedtorunagiantfridgethatcreatesandstoresliquidair.Wrong-timeenergypullsambientairoutoftheatmosphereandcoolsitto-196Catemperatureatwhichbothoxygenandnitrogenareliquid.Onceliquefied700litresofaircanbecompressedinto1litreandstoredinatank.Whenthelocalgridneedsatop-upsomeoftheliquidisexposedtoambienttemperatureandtheresultingexpansionpacksenoughpunchtodriveaturbine.Bestofallbecausenitrogenboilsat-195.8Ctheprocessofreturningittoambienttemperaturerequiresverylittleenergy.AccordingtoHighviewtheLondon-basedcompanythatoperatesthepilotplantthistechnologywillbecapableofsupplyingtensorevenhundredsofmegawatts.Asingle50-tonnetank-astandardpieceofkitwidelyusedinthechemicalindustry-couldstoreenoughliquidairtopoweraround15000homesforanhoursaysHighviewsTobyPeters.Themechanismisfunctionallyequivalenttoabatterythatrunsonair.Addmoretanksandliquidairplantscanservicemorehouseholdsforlongerperiodsperhapsevenreplacingtheoutputofamedium-sizedpowerstationforseveralhoursatatime.Liquidairbatteriescouldbedeployedanywherebecausetheyrequireneitherareservoirnorgravity.Whilethecostsarestillbeingdeterminedtheyarelikelytobemuchcheaperthanpumpedstorageasnomountainsneedbeexcavatedandthanlithiumbatteriessincetheequipmentrequiredisalreadywidelyused.AllthecomponentsareavailableofftheshelfsaysYulongDinganengineerattheUniversityofLeedsUKwhohasstudiedliquidair.Theonlycurrentdrawbackisefficiency.Noprocesscanstoreandreleaseenergywithoutwastingalittle-evenbatterieslose10percenttoheat.Buttheprocessofliquefyingairisevenlessefficientthancompressingittheenergyyougetbackisanabysmal25percent.TheSloughpilotplantfaresevenworse.Thedemonstrationprojectwasnotbuiltwithefficiencyinmindanditshows-efficiencyisjust12percent.Thatsaidsimplyscalinguptheplanttocommercialsizeandoptimisingitforefficiencywillpushthatnumberto50percentHighviewpredictsbecauselargerturbinesaremoreefficientthansmallerones.ButHighviewengineersalsohaveacouplemoretricksuptheirsleevestofurtherimproveefficiency.Thefirstistorecycletheliquidairafterithasbeenreturnedtoambienttemperaturebyusingittoheatuptheliquidairthatisjustabouttoentertheturbine.Thissimplemanoeuvretheengineerssaywillbumpefficiencyto55or60percent.Aslightlymoreadvancedtrickmakesuseofthermodynamics.Thebiggerthetemperaturedifferencebetweentheliquidairandthegasasithitstheturbinethemoreexplosivetheexpansionandthereforethemoreenergygoesintothegrid.Highviewengineersnowpumptheexhaustgasesfromtheneighbouringbiomassplantintotheturbinetomeettheliquefiedair.Inacommercialplantthiswillcausetheefficiencyoftheprocesstojumpto70percentpredictsPeters.Theseexhaustgasesareconsideredlow-gradeheatbecauseataround100Ctheyarenothotenoughtobeusefulanywhereelse.Wasteheatiseasytocomeby.ThetotalheatwastedbyindustrydatacentresandpowerplantsintheUKisequivalenttothatneededtoheateverybuildinginthecountrysaysFox.Simplylocatingliquidairplantsadjacenttothesefacilitieswouldtranslateintoextraelectricityhesays.RenewablefutureButwasteheatcanplayanevenbettertrickonethatatfirstglancemayappearimplausiblebumptheefficiencyoftheairbatteriespast100percent.Usingreallyhotexhaust-say150Cor200C-willtransferextraenergyintothegasificationprocesssaysDingandsalvagingsomeoftheheatfromthewastegaseswhichisnormallylosttotheatmospherecanturnitintoevenmoreelectricity.Therecouldbealotofmoneyinthecommercialisationofairbatteries.Butallofthisdependsonaclearpathtowardrenewableenergyandthatrequiresmorethanjustinventiveengineering.Anuncertainfutureforrenewableenergycanderailevenpromisingprojects.ForexampleAirProductsalargeengineeringfirmbasedinAllentownPennsylvaniarecentlystoppedworkedon LiquidAirMediaCoverage2012132January2013NewScientistIntothinairStoragesalvationforgreenenergy-Page2itsliquidairenergystoragesystemcitingthelowpriceofnaturalgas.Withoutlargeamountsofrenewableenergytostoretheirbusinessmodelwasmoot.Howeverthetideisturning.Governmentsarebeginningtounderstandthatthefutureofrenewableenergyhingesonrobustversatileenergystorage.Gettherightmixandrenewablescouldcost-effectivelysupply99.9percentoftheUSelectricalgridasearlyas2030accordingtoarecentreportfromtheUniversityofDelawareinNewark.Policymakersarepayingattention.Californiawhichgeneratesmorethan20percentofitselectricityfromrenewablesisnowambitiouslypursuinggridstorageprojectstomeetitstargetof33percentby2020.TheresnodoubtthatenergystoragewillplayanincreasingroleinthestateselectricitygridasweaddmoreandmorecleanenergytothesystemsaysLauraWislandoftheUnionofConcernedScientistsinCambridgeMassachusetts.AndinTexaswindpowershortagesmaysoonbeathingofthepastthankstoarecentlypassedlawthatclearstheregulatorydecksforgridstorage.Newpoliciessuchastheseshouldpromptaboominenergystorage.Morethan100billionissettobeinvestedinenergystorageoverthenextdecadeandtheraceisontocapturethatmarket.Thewinnerswillhelpsolvethebiggestenvironmentalproblemofourtime.RunningonemptyTiredofputtingpetrolinyourtankInthefutureyourenginecouldrunonthinair.Itmayseemfuturisticbuttheaircardatesbackto1903whenaBritishoutfitcalledtheFromissue2898ofNewScientistmagazinepage28-31.LiquidAirCarCompanyproposedtheidea.Petrolvehiclesarepoweredbythetinyexplosionsthatoccureverytimeasparkplugignitesabatchoffuel.Buttherapidgasificationthattakesplacewhenliquidnitrogenisexposedtoheatcanalsoproduceenoughforcetomoveapistonseemainstory.Thetheorywascompellingbutthemulti-stageenginerequiredbytheoriginaldesignwastooinefficientandcostlytocompetewiththepetrolcar.Morethanacenturylaterhowevertheideaisbackandthistimeitmightwork.BritishinventorPeterDearmanhasproducedalaboratorymodelofanenginethatrunsonliquidnitrogenandhismechanismfixestheproblemthatstymiedtheLiquidAirCarbyfindingawaytoheattheliquidairinsidetheengine.Anenginethatrunsonairwouldbeagame-changer.Itischeapsafeanditonlytakesminutestorechargethecarrivallingpetrolsbiggestsellingpoint.GlobalengineeringfirmRicardohasfundedademonstrationenginethattheteamhopestohaverunninglaterthisyear.JimGilesisaconsultantforNewScientist LiquidAirMediaCoverage2012137December2012CNNInternationalLiquidairfuturefuelsgarageinventor LiquidAirMediaCoverage20121331October2012InstitutionofMechanicalEngineersPioneeringBritishtechnologiesthatcouldhelptostoreenergy-Page1UsernameLOG-INForgottenpasswordorNotregisteredSearchGOHomeNewsAgendanewsletterPressandmediaPresscoverageFollowtheInstitutionliquid-air-01PioneeringBritishtechnologiesthatcouldhelptostoreenergyOctober292012ThismonththeInstitutionhelpedtochampiontwopioneeringBritishtechnologiesthathavethepotentialtosolveoneofsocietysmostpressingchallengeshowtostoreenergy.Whatsmoretheybothuseourmostabundantresourceair.Thefirstliquidairtechnologyisahugelypromisingmethodofstoringwrong-timerenewableenergywithouttheneedforexpensiveandgeographicallyconstrictivepumped-hydroplantsandoneBishopStortfordengineerisevenworkingonaliquidairengineforuseintransportation.Theideaofliquidairasanenergyvectorisnotnew.Scientistsfirstliquefiedairin1883andwithin20yearstheLiquidAirCarCompanyhadproducedavehiclethatwouldrunonit.Whatisnewisthemarriageofliquidairtechnologywiththelatestengineeringtechniquesandprocessestocreateapotentiallyrevolutionarywaytosolvetheissueofintermittencyinherentinwindandsolarpower.LiquidAirEnergyStorageLAEStakeselectricityfromthegridatpeaktimessuchasonwindydaysandusesittocoolairuntilitliquefiesatminus196degreesCelsius.Theliquidairwhichatthisstageismostlynitrogencanthenbestoredcheaplyandsafelyuntilitisneededwhenitisexposedtonormalambienttemperatures.Theliquidimmediatelyturnsbackintogasexpandingby700timeswhichisthenusedtoturnaturbineandfeedelectricitybacktothegrid.HighviewPowerasmallBritishfirmheadquarteredinLondonhasbeentriallingtheprocessforthepasttwoyearsatthebackofapowerplantinSloughBerkshire.Whiletheprocessonitsowncancurrentlyonlyachievearound20-30efficiencywhencombinedwiththelow-gradeheatemittedbyanindustrialplantorpowerstationtheefficiencycouldrisetoasmuchas70makingitcompetitivewithotherformsoflarge-scaleenergystorage.Whatsmoreitdoesntneedthemountainousgeographyofpumped-hydrostorageorthescarceandhazardouschemicalsofalithiumbattery.TweetTweet0Like71MoreservicesShareShareHomeAboutusEventsKnowledgeLearninganddevelopmentMembershipandregistrationNearyouNewsServicesServicesoverviewServicesforyouBusinessservicesManufacturingExcellenceliquid-air-02On2OctobertheInstitutionhostedthelaunchofaworkinggroupsetuptoinvestigatethepotentialofliquidair.ThegroupwhichwillworkonawhitepaperonthetechnologytobereleasednextyearcomprisessomeofthecountrysleadingacademicsindustryrepresentativesandcivilservantsaswellasIanArbonfromtheInstitutionsEnergyEnvironmentandSustainabilityGroup.LaunchingtheworkinggroupDrTimFoxHeadofEnergyandEnvironmentattheInstitutionofMechanicalEngineerssaidAswelooktorunourhomesandcarsbusinessesandfactoriesonzeroorlowcarbonenergyweneednewsolutionstocaptureandessentiallywarehousegreenenergysoitcanbeusedwhenandwhererequiredeitheronthegridorinavehicle.Atoneendofthescalepumpedhydroprovidesverylargescaleenergystoragebutislimitedgeographicallybyrequiringmountainswhileattheotherendofthespectrumbatteriescanfitinvehiclesbutcurrentlyareexpensiveandtakehourstorecharge.Liquidairandliquidnitrogenareanexcitingalternativeweshouldexploretostoreenergy.Itseemstoaddressmanyofthechallengeswefaceandisaffordableusesmaturecomponentsandishighlyscalable.ThelaunchalsocaughttheattentionofthenationalmediafeaturingontheBBCwebsiteTodayProgrammeBBC1OClockNewsSkyNewsandPEMagazine.LaterinthemonthasecondpioneeringengineeringfirmcametotheInstitutiontopresenttheirlatestdevelopment.AirFuelSynthesisAFSfromStockton-on-TeesarrivedattheInstitutionsAirCaptureDevelopingTechnologiesforCarbonRecyclingandNegativeEmissionsconferencewithastartlingannouncementtheyhadcreatedpetrolusingairandelectricity.AFScreatedfivelitresofsyntheticpetrolattheirStocktondemonstratorplantusingthefollowingprocessAirisblownintoatowercontainingamistofsodiumhydroxidewhichreactswiththecarbondioxideintheairformingsodiumcarbonate.ElectricityisthenpassedthroughthesodiumcarbonatetoreleasethecarbondioxidewhichisstoredAdehumidifierinthetowercondenseswaterfromtheair.Thewateristhensplitintohydrogenandoxygenusingelectrolysis LiquidAirMediaCoverage20121331October2012InstitutionofMechanicalEngineersPioneeringBritishtechnologiesthatcouldhelptostoreenergy-Page2ThecarbondioxideandhydrogenarereactedtogethertocreateSyngaswhichisthenprocessedtoformmethanolThemethanolispassedthroughagasolinefuelreactorcreatingpetrolThefuelproducedcanbeusedinanyregularpetroltankandifrenewableenergyisusedtoprovidetheelectricittherocessandendroductarecomletelcarbonneutral.Thiscleanfuelisadirectdrop-inreplacementfuelforexistingvehiclesandinfrastructure.Itcanalsobeusedtostoreintermittentwrong-timeorstrandedwrong-placeenergyfromrenewablesourcesandhasmanyadvantagesoverbiofuelswhenblendedwithconventionalpetrolafeaturethathasalreadyattractedtheattentionofthemotorsportindustry.ThetechnologycreatedevenmoreofastiramongsttheworldsmediathanliquidairaftertheScienceEditorofTheIndependentwhoattendedtheconferencesplashedthestoryonthefrontpageofthatFridayspaper.OverthecourseofthedaythisgreatexampleofmodernBritishengineeringwascoveredbytheBBCITVDailyTelegraphDailyMailandevenTheSunculminatinginavisitbyNickCleggtoStocktonthatafternoon.BythenextweekthestoryhadgoneglobalappearinginTimeMagazineNewYorkPostDeutscheWelleandSydneyMorningHerald.liquid-air-03BeforethestorybrokeAFSwasasmallfirmlookingforinvestorstotaketheirideafromthedemonstratorstagetothenextlevelofproductiona6milliontonne-a-dayplant.Threedays30000hitsontheAFSwebsiteandhundredsofphonecallslaterTonyMarmontwhofoundedAirFuelSynthesistoldhislocalnewspaperWevehadbusinesspeoplemeninthestreetretiredpeoplepeoplefromeverycornerofbusinesscalling.ItsbeenmorethanIevercouldhavedreamed.Ifeeloverwhelmedbyit.Iveneverseenareactionlikethisbefore.Imhopingthatpeoplewilltakealicenceoutonthetechnologyandbuildthemallovertheworld.5Comments1.1GeoffGlover02NovThekeyfeatureoftheconceptofusingliquidairwasnotaddressedi.e.thesystemelectricalenergycapacityperunitvolumeofliquidair.Thesecondparagraphofthereportsuggeststhatitcouldbeusedtoaugmenthydro-electricresources.Inthisrespectitisworthbearinginmindthatourentirepumpedstoragehydrocapacitycanprovideupto2.8GWforonly5hoursthendropsto1.1GWandfinallyrunsoutofwaterafter22hours.Sowhatvolumeofliquidairwouldberequiredtoproducesay1.1GWofpowerfor22hoursIsuspectanawfullotofliquidairwouldberequiredbuttheanswertothiswillgiveaclearindicationoftheviabilityofairforanythingotherthanlocalstandbyuseintheeventofawithdrawalofmainssupplies.Unfortunatelyanti-cyclonestendtolastformorethanadayortwoandareoftenaccompaniedbyfullcloudcover2.2MartinJoinson31OctThekeythingwithanyenergystoragemethodistoputthenumbersintoseehowefficientitisandthinkthroughwhatitsfor.Forsmoothingoutsupplyanddemandduringthedayitshardtobeatbatteries.Icouldrunmyhousefor3daysonthebatteriesofmytwoelectriccars.ImlookingforwardtogettingasmartmetersoIcandomybitbysellingelectricitywhenitsexpensiveandrechargingfrommyPVarrayorwhenelectricityischeap.IfthereareenoughsourcesoflowgradeheatthencryogenicairmayhaveaparttoplaybuthowmuchenergyisusedkeepingitcoldIsitonlyforshorttermstorageHydrogenmighthavearoleforsummertowinterstorage.Istruggletoseewhatthesyntheticpetrolisfor.Forthesameamountofelectricityyoucango4timesfurtherinanelectriccarthanahydrogenfuelcellcar.Givenhowinefficientpetrolcarsaretheratiowillbeenormoussoitonlymakessenseifyouhaveanenormoussurplusofelectricity.3.3LeslieBancroft31OctThearticleoutlinestwoveryexcitingdevelopmentsforwhichthedevelopersaretobecongratulated.HoweverwhataboutusingoffshorewindturbinestoproducehydrogenandoxygenfromseawaterbyelectrolysisthehydrogenthentobepipedashoremaybeusingredundantgaspipelinesforstorageandsubsequentusefordirectfiringinpowerstationboilersSincehydrogenisnotsuitableforuseinsmallscalecommercialanddomesticappliancesbecauseofitshighburningvelocityandlowvolumetricenergydensitycalorificvaluecoulditbereformedwithsequesteredcarbondioxidefromconventionalpowerstationstoformasubstitutefornaturalgasusingaprocesssimilartothatnowbeingproposedtoproducemotorfuelThusthewholeprocesswouldbecarbonneutral.4.4TomStanley31OctExcellentarticle.TheOrkneyscurrentlyhaveexcesspowerproducedbywindturbinesforwhichthegridconnectionisinsufficientthiscouldbeidealforthem.Thefactthatthisisscaleablemeanstherearemanypotentialusesofthistechnology.5.5KeldFenwick30OctYettwomoregoodideastoaddtothealreadylargeportfolioofenergystorageandenergyproductionconversionsystems.Weneedaseriouscostbenefitevaluationofthepotentialofthecontendersandthemostpromisingonesneedtobepursuedurgentlywiththenecessarydeterminationandavailablefinancialresourcestobringthemtomarket.IfwedonottakeacommercialapproachtotheproblemthereisarealdangerthatnoneofthemwillmatureasBritishtechnologiesandothercountrieswillreapthebenefits.Wewillthenagainbeinthehumiliatingpositionofbuyingtechnologywhichoriginatedinthiscountry.WhobetterthantheIMechEtosetupthisevaluationprocess LiquidAirMediaCoverage20121315October2012EconomistDifferenceEngineEndoftheelectriccarDigitalmobileEventsTopicsA-ZNewslettersJobsSearchRegisterSubscribeLoginWorldpoliticsBusinessfinanceEconomicsSciencetechnologyCultureBlogsDebatediscussAudiovideoPrinteditionOurcookiespolicyhaschanged.Reviewourcookiesinformationformoredetails.Bycontinuingtobrowsethissiteyouareagreeingtoouruseofcookies.PreviousNextLatestBabbageLatestfromallourblogsOct15th2012901byN.V.LOSANGELESNitrogencycleDifferenceEngineEndoftheelectriccarBabbageScienceandtechnologyTweet190AboutBabbageReportsontheintersectionsbetweensciencetechnologycultureandpolicyinablognamedafterCharlesBabbageaVictorianmathematicianandengineerFollowEconSciTech38.6KfollowersRSSfeedComment448PrintE-mailPermalinkReprintspermissionsLike2.5kStillhappyonhydrogenACOUPLEofdozenelectriccarswithfuelcellsunderthebonnetinplaceofthemoreusualflat-packofbatteriesbeneaththefloorhavebeenzippingaroundyourcorrespondentsneighbourhoodforthepastfewyears.MostareFCXClaritymodelsfromHondaallinthesamerichcrimsoncolour.AcoupleofothersaresilverF-CellstationwagonsmadebyMercedes-Benz.Theseexperimentalvehiclesareleasedtoselectedusersfortrialperiodswhiletheirmanufacturersseehowthehydrogen-fuelledcarssurvivethecutandthrustofLosAngelestraffic.Sofarmostseemtohaveacquittedthemselvesratherwell.Meanwhiletheirdriverscanfeelrightlysmugabouttheonlyemissionfromtheexhaustpipesbeingwatervapour.Anotherplusisthatthefuel-cellvehiclesarelargelyfreeoftherangeanxietythatplaguesbattery-poweredelectriccarssuchastheNissanLeaf.BoththeHondaandtheMercedeshaverangesnotthatfarshortofcomparablepetrolcarsie190to240miles300to380km.Soonerorlaterthoughtheyhavetoreturntooneofonlyfivehydrogen-refuellingstationsopentothepublicinthegreaterLosAngelesarea.ButoncetheretheirtankscanberefilledAdvertisementASmarterPlanetSocialBusinessFromlikingtoleading.FollowIBMSocialBizIBMSocialBizDownloadNotesandDomino990days.httpt.coohUuFm34min23secagoIBMSocialBizHowSocialIntranetsCultivatehttpt.coyRFQE8T74Lviasocbiz1hour36minagoIBMSocialBizDidumisstheIBMCreatingaWorkforcewebcastApr26herehttpt.coj1k4dfWybH2hours37minagoSocialBusinessInfographicTheBusinessofSocialBusiness-IBMInstituteofBusinessValueReportLikingIsntLeadingTheRiseofSocialBusiness-IBMPOVinminutesratherthanthehoursneededtorechargeabatterycar.Andtherestherub.Givenfurtherrefinementpluseconomiesofscalefuel-cellvehiclesoughttobeanattractivealternativetopresent-daymotoringifonlyhydrogen-refuellingfacilitiesweremorecommon.Asitisoutletsarefewerandfartherbetweenthanchargingstationsforelectricvehiclesorevenpumpsforcompressednaturalgas.Apartfromtheusualchicken-and-eggproblemtheplantandequipmentneededforproducingdistributingandstoringhydrogenishugelyexpensive.Unliketheindustrialhydrogenusedtomakeammoniafertiliserorforconvertingheavyoilfractionsintopetrolthehydrogenneededforfuelcellsmustbe99.999pure.Thatrulesoutallthecheaperwaysofmakingitotherthanelectrolysisofwater.Thereareproblemsonthedistributionsidetoo.Becausehydrogenhasthesmallestmoleculeofallitleaksthroughpracticallyeverything.Inparticularitembrittlessteelandcausescorrosionhasteningcrackpropagationintheprocess.Pipelinesandstoragetankshavetobespeciallylinedatadditionalcost.Unlikefossilfuelssuchaspetrolordieselhydrogenisnotasourceofenergyinitsownright.Itismerelyameansforstoringelectricitygeneratedinapowerstationanddeliveringittothemotordrivingthewheelsofanelectricvehicleinmuchthesamewayasabatteryworks.Andasfreehydrogendoesnotoccurinusefulquantitiesinnatureithastobemadebyusingelectricitytocrackwaterintoitsconstituentelements.InCaliforniadespitethemanysolarinstallationsandwindfarmstheelectricitycomingoutoftheplugisneithergreennorcleanbeingderivedpredominantlyie62fromfossilfuel.Duringcheap-rateperiodsatnightwhenelectricvehiclestendtoberechargedandelectrolysisplantsarerunningflatoutmostofCaliforniaselectricityisimportedfromcoal-firedpowerstationsoutofstate.Thuslikeelectricvehicleshydrogencarscontributetheirshareofgreenhousegasesaswell.ExploretrendingtopicsCommentsandtweetsonpopulartopicsReaderscommentsUSJapanChinaBrazilEuropeGermanyRussiaMuslimIranEnglishBrazilianTurkeyBraziliansIsraelSyriaLQjhvJGVkFranceAbePakistanOECDFrenchTVIndiaUSALulaFullversionChangetimespanCertainlymovingtheemissionsfromthevehiclesexhaustpipetothepowerstationmakesiteasiertocontrolthepollution.SothequestionbecomeswhetherthereisamoreefficientwayofpackagingelectricityforuseinvehiclesotherthanchargingbatteriesormakinghydrogenbyelectrolysisofwaterAgrowingbodyofopinionseemstothinkliquidairistheanswerormorespecificallythenitrogencomponentthatmakesup78ofair.Itisnotexactlyanewidea.Airwasfirstliquefiedin1883usingessentiallythesameprocessastodayiecompressingitto200atmospherescoolingitto-190Candthenlettingitsuddenlyexpandandcondense.Theprocessturns1000litresoftransparentgasinto1.4litresoflightblueliquid.Aslongasitsstoragecontaineriswellinsulatedliquidaircanbekeptatatmosphericpressureforlongperiods.Butonexposuretoroomtemperatureitwillinstantlyboilandrevertbacktoitsgaseousstate.Intheprocessitexpands700-foldprovidingthewherewithaltooperateapistonengineoraturbine.Liquidnitrogendoesanevenbetterjob.Beingconsiderablydenserthanliquidairitcanstoremoreenergyperunitvolumeallowingcarstotravelfurtheronatankfulofthestuff.Weightforweightliquidnitrogenpacksmuchthesameenergyasthelithium-ionbatteriesusedinlaptopsmobilephonesandelectriccars.Intermsofperformanceandrangethenanitrogenvehicleissimilartoanelectricvehicleratherthanaconventionalone.Thebigdifferenceisthataliquid-nitrogencarislikelytobeconsiderablycheapertobuildthananelectricvehicle.ForonethingitsenginedoesnothavetocopewithhighLatestblogposts-AlltimesareGMTCentralbanksandthemarketsThelonggoodbyeButtonwoodsnotebook-1hour42minsagoCanadasmisbehavingmayorsThescandalskeeponcomingAmericasview-1hour42minsagoThecar-hireexperienceTroubleontheSignUpRecentActivityCreateanaccountorLogIntoseewhatyouThestreetserupt10244peoplerecommendthis.Highspirits3287peoplerecommendthis.Drinkinghabits1099peoplerecommendthis.Maybebusesshouldbefree1097peoplerecommendthis.Facebooksocialluintemperaturesandcouldthereforebefabricatedoutofcheapalloysorevenplastics.Foranotherbecauseitneedsnobulkytractionbatteriesitwouldbelighterandcheaperstillthananelectricvehicle.Atpresentlithium-ionbatterypacksforelectricvehiclescostbetween500and600akilowatt-hour.TheNissanLeafhas24kilowatt-hoursofcapacity.Analects-1hour51minsagoConservationSlowdemiseBabbage-3hours23minsagoAtaround13200thebatteriesaccountformorethanathirdofthecars35200basicprice.Anitrogencarwithcomparablerangeandperformancecouldthereforesellforlittlemorethanhalfthepriceofanelectriccar.Athirdadvantageisthatliquidnitrogenisaby-productoftheindustrialprocessformakingliquidoxygen.BecausethereisfourtimesasmuchnitrogenasoxygeninairthereisinevitablyaglutofthestuffsomuchsoliquidnitrogensellsinAmericaforatenthofthepriceofmilk.Finallyabreakthroughinenginedesignhasmadeliquidnitrogenanevenmoreattractivealternativethanthelithium-ionbatteriesusedinelectriccars.AninventionmadebyanindependentBritishengineercalledPeterDearmandispenseswiththecostlyheatexchangerthatisneededtovaporisetheliquidnitrogenquickly.Insteadasmallamountofwaterandanti-freezeegmethanolisinjectedintothecylinderjustastheliquidnitrogenisdrawnincausingittoboilandexpandrapidlytherebyforcingthepistondowninsidethethecylinder.WithoutthatsaysMrDearmanyouhadtohaveamulti-stageenginewhichiscumbersomeinefficientandexpensive.TheInstitutionofMechanicalEngineersinLondontheleadingstandards-settingandregistrationbodyfortheprofessionwassoimpressedwiththeDearmanEngineCompanysdevelopmentsthatithasnowestablishedaworkinggroupcomprisingengineersacademicsgovernmentofficialsandindustryleaderstoexplorewaysofexploitingliquid-nitrogentechnology.Ifthenitrogenvehiclewithitsloweroverallcostandrapidrefuellingcapacityprovestobethesolutiontozero-emissionmotoringthatelectricvehiclesoncepromisedwheredoesthatleavethenewgenerationofhydrogenfuel-cellcarsAccordingtoHondaafuelcelldrivinganelectricmotoristwotothreetimesmoreefficientthananinternal-combustionengine.Unfortunatelyafuel-cellvehicleisevenmoreRecommendedCommentedTheBigMacIndexgoestoNorthKoreaCheeseburgerinParadiseIslaBanyan-Jun20th0359TheEconomistexplainsWhoarethSyrianoppositionTheEconomistexplains-Jun19th2350SaudiArabiaDrivingforfreedomPomegranate-Jun19th2302MorefromourblogsMostpopularAdvertisementSurveillanceSecretsliesandAmericasspiesProtestsinBrazilThestreetseruptPoliticsthisweekRevampingSkopjeStonesofcontentionSurveillanceShouldthegovernmentknowlethanGoogle12345Recommend368expensivetobuildthanabatterycar.ThethirdgenerationofHondas100kilowattfuel-cellstackdevelopedfortheClarityisreckonedtohavecostaround350000aunit.TheMercedesstackprobablycostmuchthesame.ThatisonereasonwhyHondabuiltonly200ClaritycarsandMercedesamere70F-Cells.Inrecentyearscarmakersarereckonedtohavemorethanhalvedthemanufacturingcostoftheirfuel-cellstacks.Installedtheynowprobablyrunto1500akilowattofcapacity.Neverthelessthatstillleavesthemanorderofmagnitudeormorepricierthaninternal-combustionengines.Squeezingyetmorecostoutoftheirfuelcellsproton-exchange-membranetechnologywillnotbeeasy.Thatsaidsevennewfuel-cellcarswereexhibitedattherecentParisMotorShow.Admittedlymostwereconceptmodelsbutallwerefullyfunctional.Sotheindustryseemstobehedgingitsbetsonbattery-poweredelectrics.ButisitbackingtherighttechnologyWhileheisatoddswithsomeofthebestbrainsinthebusinessyourcorrespondentcannothelpbutthinkthatlikebattery-poweredelectricvehiclesbeforethemthefuel-cellcarsrunningaroundhisneighbourhoodtodayaredestinedtooccupyatmosta3nicheinthemarket.Andthoughstillalongshotnitrogenwouldseemtohaveabetterchanceoffulfillingtherolehydrogenwasonceexpectedtoplay.PreviousCo-workingChildishoccupationsNextArevolutioninlens-makingChangingfocusTweet190Share13892EconomistblogsAnalectsChinaAmericasviewTheAmericasBabbageScienceandtechnologyBanyanAsiaBaobabAfricaBlightyBritainButtonwoodsnotebookFinancialmarketsCharlemagneEuropeanpoliticsDemocracyinAmericaAmericanpoliticsEasternapproachesEx-communistEuropeErasmusReligionandpublicpolicyFeastandfami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LiquidAirMediaCoverage2012137October2012SkyNewsLiquidAirCouldBeTheFuelOfTheFuture-Page1OnecompanyHighviewPowerStoragehasbuiltapilotplantnexttoapowerstationinSloughtoprovethetechnologyworks.Attimesoflowdemandforelectricitytheplantusestheexcessenergyfromthepowerstationtosuckairthroughrefrigerator-stylecompressorsturningitintoaliquidwhichitthenstoresinaninsulatedtank.Whenconsumerdemandspikestheenergyisreturnedtothenationalgrid.Thetankwhichstores60tonsofliquidaircanpower6000homesforonehour.ThecompanyschiefexecutiveofficerGarethBretttoldSkyNewsthetechnologyisfarcheaperthanstoringenergyinbatteries.Thetroublewithbatteriesistheyarebestsuitedtosmallapplicationslikeyourlaptophesaid. LiquidAirMediaCoverage2012137October2012SkyNewsLiquidAirCouldBeTheFuelOfTheFuture-Page2HighviewPowerStoragespilotliquidairplantinSloughWhatwearetalkingabouthereisthenationalgridwhichrequiresverylargeamountsofelectricitytobestored.Therearerelativelyfewwaysofdoingthatandwethinkwithliquidairwehavefoundoneofthefewtechnologiesthatistrulyscalabletogridscaleusage.Thetechnologycouldmakewindturbinesmoreviablebystoringexcessproductionathighwindspeedsreleasingitagainincalmweatherhesaid.ResearchbyImperialCollegesuggestsenergystoragecouldreducethenumberofpowerstationsandnationalgridinfrastructureneededsaving10bn.EngineeringfirmRicardoisalsodevelopingacarenginefuelledbyliquidairbasedonaprototypebuiltbyinventorPeterDearman.UsingabeerkegtostoretheliquidandcopperpipesfromaDIYstorehegeneratedenoughpowertodrivehisVauxhallNova.Iveprobablydone35mph.ItprobablywouldgofasterbutIhaventtakenitoutontheopenroadsoIvebeenlimitedonspacehesaid.Hesaidaliquidaircarwouldovercomesomeoftheproblemswithelectriccarswhichareexpensiveusescarcematerialsintheirbatteriesandarebestsuitedtoshortdistances.Itsnottherangeoftheelectriccarthatistheproblemitstherecharginghesaid.Withliquidairyouhavetheconvenienceofthepetrolengineinthatyoucanrefillitquicklysimplybypouringitintothetank. LiquidAirMediaCoverage2012133October2012ProfessionalEngineeringLiquidairmadeasplashNewsNewsTechnologyTechnologyFeaturesFeaturesBlogBlogLettersLettersSurveysSurveysReviewsReviewsDiaryDiaryMagazineMagazineAboutAboutGalleryGalleryPublished3October20121613.AddCommentLiquidairmadeasplashLiquidairmadeasplashBenHargreavesBenHargreavesShareShareRelatedArticlesRelatedArticlesDearmansliquidairenginecouldrivalbatterysystemsWellallswitchontoenergystorageIsitfairthatenergyusersshouldpaymoretohelpUKmovetowardsagreenerfutureNovelenergystoragetechnologydemonstratedtogovernmentofficialsETIopenscompetitionforenergystoragesponsorshipMorefromMorefromSectionSectionGogreenandgrowricherRumoursattheDSEidefencetradeshowTheenergydebateBigBangscienceandengineeringfairsawabiggerturnoutofyoungstersthaneverbeforeShouldgovernmentgetinvolvedwhenitcomestohelpingBritishfirmsbeinnovativeBloggersBloggersLanaBozovicBenHargreavesLeeHibbertHeathReidyJohnMooreLiquidairmadeasplash.Sadlyitsnotoftenthatanengineeringstoryunlessitsanuclearreactorgoingintomeltdownoranaircraftdownedbyabirdstrikegetsalotofairtimeinthemainstreammedia.Butyesterdayscarefullyco-ordinatedeffortbytheIMechEHighviewPowerStorageanumberofacademicsandtheautomotiveengineeringconsultancyRicardotomaketheworldsitupandpayattentiontoliquidairpaidoff.AttheIMechElastnightatiredbuttypicallyenthusiasticDrTimFoxheadofenergyandclimatechangeattheinstitutionsaidhehaddoneadaysback-to-backinterviewsonthetechnologybeginningwithRadio5Liveat6amandtakingintheTodayprogrammeaswellasnewspapersjournalsandTV.NewswirespickedupthestoryasthedaywentonandinternetchattersoonfollowedwerewenowtobetaxedforairsomewonderedothersthoughtthetechnologylikelytobestampedonbyBigOilshoulditeverproveviableasatransportfuel.Foodforthoughtbutwhatwillbemostgratifyingforallinvolvedistheimpactofthedaysevents.ForFoxliquidairisimportantbecauseitrepresentsanopportunityforrenewablestocomeonlineinsignificantvolumes.Itsreallyaboutwrongtimeenergyhesaysorcapturingtheintermittentgenerationofoffshorewindattimeswhenthereisnodemandforelectricity.RichardWilliamsheadoftheCollegeofEngineeringandPhysicalSciencesattheUniversityofBirminghamsaysEnergystorageisneededbecauseofenergynotbeinggeneratedattherighttimeattherightplace.Developednationsrelyingonrenewableswouldneedrobustenergystorage.Andliquidairandthisiswhatshouldperhapsinterestthegovernmentmorethananythingcouldbeamajoropportunitytostimulatetheeconomy.Whetherthetechnologyisnowdevelopedinthewayinwhichthesepartiesenvisageisopentodebate.SeriousengagementwithitbypolicymakerswillbeneededifitisnottobecomeaCinderellastoryasFoxlikestocallit.Butproponentsofliquidaircouldawakethismorningknowingtheyachievedjustabouteverythingthatmighthavebeenexpectedfromthisopeningsalvo.ViewIssueSearchSubscribetoournewsletterSubscribetoournewsletterSubscribetoournewsletterSubscribetoournewsletterMostPopularMostPopularDawnoftheageofli-fiGoingforgoldRefuellingopportunitiesGMconsolidatestestingsitesDearmansliquidairenginecouldrivalbatterysystemsCurrentIssueOctober2012CurrentIssueOctober2012ThevoiceoftheengineeringrofessionInthisissueExpertsdraftguidanceonlimitingfrackingrisksGMconsolidatestestingsitesNuclearskillsacademylaunchedBAEembarksonrecruitmentdriveViewallissuesProfessionalEngineeringLike LiquidAirMediaCoverage2012132October2012BBCWorldNewsWhatIsLiquidAirAndHowIsitUsedToStoreEnergy LiquidAirMediaCoverage2012132October2012BBCNewsLiquidairoffersenergystoragehope-Page1SCIENCEENVIRONMENTSCIENCEENVIRONMENTHomeHomeUSCanadaUSCanadaLatinAmericaLatinAmericaUKUKAfricaAfricaAsiaAsiaEuropeEuropeMid-EastMid-EastBusinessBusinessHealthHealthTechTechEntertainmentEntertainmentVideoVideoTopSopranosactorJamesGandolfinidiesSingaporesmogcouldlastforweeksAfghansrejectTalibantalksmovesSyriasancientsitesindangerPaid-foronlinenewsmakesgainsFeaturesAnalysisIncrediblesurvivalstoryofWWIIcrashpilotswhobeatArcticwinterDisasteroniceDivisivelegacyofRollingStonejournalistMichaelHastingsRenegadereporterReaderstippingnightmaresandfairytalesBadtipYegodsSciEnvironmentSciEnvironment1October2012Lastupdatedat2031ETTurningairintoliquidmayofferasolutiontooneofthegreatchallengesinengineering-howtostoreenergy.TheInstitutionofMechanicalEngineerssaysliquidaircancompetewithbatteriesandhydrogentostoreexcessenergygeneratedfromrenewables.IMechEsayswrong-timeelectricitygeneratedbywindfarmsatnightcanbeusedtochillairtoacryogenicstateatadistantlocation.Whendemandincreasestheliquidaircanbewarmedtodriveaturbine.Engineerssaytheprocesstoproduceright-timeelectricitycanachieveanefficiencyofupto70.LiuiCOMMENTS539ByRogerHarrabinEnvironmentanalystShareNewsSportWeatherTravelCultureAutosTVRadioMoreSearchbackZeusMostSopranosactorJamesGandolfinidiesAngeratUShumantraffickingreportSingaporesmogcouldlastforweeksEye-gougevictimattackedagainHangedbodyshockforNZburglarSpacewedgeperformsdroptestSerenasorryforquotesonUSrapeTheGreekswhoworshiptheancientgodsAfghansrejectTalibantalksmovesHasthefighterpilothadhisdayIMechEisholdingaconferencetodaytodiscussnewideasonhowusingcryo-powercanbenefitthelow-carboneconomy.ThetechnologywasoriginallydevelopedbyPeterDearmanagarageinventorinHertfordshiretopowervehicles.AnewfirmHighviewPowerStoragewascreatedtotransferMrDearmanstechnologytoasystemthatcanstoreenergytobeusedonthepowergrid.Theprocesspart-fundedbythegovernmenthasnowbeentrialledfortwoyearsatthebackofapowerstationinSloughBerkshire.MorethanhotairTheresultshaveattractedtheadmirationofIMechEofficials.RenewablepowergenerationsuchaswindturbinescanproduceelectricitywhenitisnotindemandRelatedStoriesPayingforwindwedontuseWindbagstestedinenergyplanCanwego100renewableCannotplaymedia.YoudonothavethecorrectversionoftheSharedReadVideoAudioMrDearmanuseshisgarageasalaboratory LiquidAirMediaCoverage2012132October2012BBCNewsLiquidairoffersenergystoragehope-Page2ThedarkersideofbigdataIsprivateinformationtrulyprivateReadmore...ADSBYGOOGLESiemensEnergyEfficiencyIntegratedEnergySolutionsbySiemensReadMoreHereProgrammesTalkingMoviesDocumentaryprobestheenigmaofAmourfilm-makerMichaelHanekebrilliantinventionheadofenergyTimFoxtoldBBCNews.Inthiscaseitisaverycleverapplicationthatreallydoeslooklikeapotentialsolutiontoareallygreatchallengethatfacesusasweincreasetheamountofintermittentpowerfromrenewables.DrFoxurgedthegovernmenttoprovideincentivesinitsforthcomingelectricitylegislationforfirmstostoreenergyonacommercialscalewiththisandothertechnologies.IMechEsaysthesimplicityandeleganceoftheHighviewprocessisappealingespeciallyasitaddressesnotjusttheproblemofstoragebutalsotheseparateproblemofwasteindustrialheat.Theprocessfollowsanumberofstages1.Wrong-timeelectricityisusedtotakeinairremovetheCO2andwatervapourwhichwouldotherwisefreezesolid2.theremainingairmostlynitrogenischilledto-190C-310Fandturnstoliquid-thisprovidesacompactstoragemediumthatcanlaterdrawenergyintheformofheatfromtheenvironment3.theliquidairisheldinagiantvacuumflaskuntilitisneeded4.whendemandforpowerrisestheliquidiswarmedtoambienttemperature.Asitvapourisestheexpandinggasdrivesaturbinetoproduceelectricity-nocombustionisinvolvedIMechEsaysthisprocessisonly25efficientbutitismassivelyimprovedbyco-sitingthecryo-generatornexttoanindustrialplantorpowerstationproducinglow-gradeheatthatiscurrentlyventedandbeingreleasedintotheatmosphere.Theheatcanbeusedtoboostthethermalexpansionoftheliquidair.Moreenergyissavedbytakingthewastecoolairwhentheairhasfinishedchillingandpassingitthroughthreetankscontaininggravel.Thegravelremainscooluntilitisneededtorestarttheair-chilling.MeetYourAlternateSelfTheKeytoChangeYourLifeistoJumpIntoYourSubconscious...www.QuantumJumping.comBrainTrainingGamesImprovememorywithscientificallydesignedbrainexercises.www.lumosity.comprocess.DeliveringdurabilityHighviewbelievesthatproducedatscaletheirkitscouldbeupto70efficientandIMechEagreesthisfigureisrealistic.Batteriescanget80efficiencysothisisntasgoodinthatrespectexplainsDrFox.ButwedonothaveabatteryindustryintheUKandwedohaveplentyofrespectedengineerstoproduceatechnologylikethis.Whatsmoreitusesstandardindustrialcomponents-whichreducescommercialriskitwilllastfordecadesanditcanbefixedwithaspanner.Inthefutureitisexpectedthatbatteriescurrentlyusedinelectriccarsmayplayapartinhouseholdenergystorage.ButRichardSmithheadofenergystrategyforNationalGridtoldBBCNewsthatothersortsofstoragewouldbeincreasinglyimportantincomingdecadesandshouldbeincentivisedtocommercialscalebygovernment.HesaidStorageisoneoffourtoolswehavetobalancesupplyanddemandincludingthermalflexingswitchingonandoffgas-firedpowerstationsinterconnectionsanddemand-sidemanagement.Ultimatelyitwillbedowntoeconomics.Igethalfadozenpeopleaweektryingtopersuademetheyhavea LiquidAirMediaCoverage2012132October2012BBCNewsLiquidairoffersenergystoragehope-Page3MrDearmanwhoalsoinventedtheMicroVentresuscitationdeviceusedinambulancestoldBBCNewshewasdelightedatthesuccessofhisideas.Hesaidhebelievedhisliquidairenginewouldprevailagainstotherstoragetechnologiesbecauseitdidnotrelyonpotentiallyscarcematerialsforbatteries.Ihavebeenworkingonthisoffandonforcloseon50yearshetoldBBCNews.IstartedwhenIwasateenagerbecauseIthoughttherewouldntbeenoughrawmaterialsintheworldforeveryonetohaveacar.Therehadtobeadifferentway.ThensomehowIcameupwiththeideaofstoringenergyincold.Itshardtoputintowordstoseewhatshappeningwithmyideastoday.JohnScottfromtheInstitutionofEngineeringandTechnologyIETaddedAtpresentpumped-hydrostorageistheonlypracticalbulkstoragemediumintheBritishgrid.HoweverlocationsareveryrestrictedhetoldBBCNews.Inthefutureifnewstoragetechnologiescanbedeployedatalowercostthanalternativesitwouldbenefitthepowersystem.AspokesmanfortheDepartmentofEnergyandClimateChangeDeccsaiditwouldshortlylaunchaschemetoincentiviseinnovationinenergystorage.OthergrantsareavailablefromOfgem.